CNA -rest Review #2 Note: MasloWs Hierarchy of Needs WILL BE ON TEST, even though it is not in this review. Refer to textbook. ??? Note: Need to know Metastasis: the spread of cancer to other body parts ??? Note: Review osteoporosis What are some common causes of stroke Note: Review emphysema Communication 1. What is communication? The exchange of information. A message sent is received and interpreted by the intended person.

2. How do people communicate nonverbally? Communication is also psychological. It involves thinking and reasoning.In non verbal communication, messages are sent ith gestures, facial expressions, posture, body movements, touch and smell. 3.

What clues might the nurse aide see that a resident does not understand what is being said? The resident doesn’t respond to you. The resident looks confused. The resident does not speak the same language. The resident asks you to repeat yourself. The resident’s nonverbal communication is giving you a different message than their verbal communication. What actions can the nurse aide take to ensure that the resident understands?You can clarify, to make sure everyone is on the same page.

This can be done by repeating yourself, or paraphrasing what the resident has aid. Ask questions that have yes or no answers if the patient seems confused. 4. What are some of the common barriers to communication? Using unfamiliar language, cultural differences, changing the subject, giving your opinion, talking a lot when others are silent, failure to listen, pat answers, illness and disability, and age.

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5. With whom can the nurse aide share information about a resident? Members of the care team involved with patient, such as a nurse or doctor.The nurse aide cannot share information with anyone else, like family, friends, the resident, or people on a different floor or wing. . When you need to talk with the nurse about a resident, where should the conversation take place? You should meet with them in private away from anyone who is not part of the care team directly involved with the patient. 7. When should the CNA report changes in patient condition to the nurse? Immediately, when there is a change from normal or a change in the person’s condition. When the nurse asks you to do so.

When you leave the unit for meals, breaks or for other reasons.Before the end of shift report. 8. What is the difference between objective and subjective data? Objective data: nformation that can be seen, heard, felt or smelled by an observer; signs, such as a temperature reading that indicates a fever. Subjective data: things a person tells you about that you cannot observe through your senses. Can be symptoms, such as someone Just “feeling” hot. 9. Communications techniques: A) Which communication technique lets you make sure that you understand the message? Clarifying B) What technique lets the person choose what to talk about?Open ended questions C) What is accomplished by listening to a person’s concerns? Observing verbal and nonverbal cues that they are giving you.

You are also validating hat person by showing them respect. 10. Why is written documentation so important in health care? It shows the person’s condition and response to the treatment. It’s a permanent record that can help keep the patient from harm or from having an unnecessary procedure due to wrong information. Basic Human Needs 1.

Define stress: The response or change in the body caused by any emotional, physical, social or economical factor 2.Define anxiety: A vague, uneasy feeling in response to stress 3. Define disability: Any loss, absence, or impaired physical or mental function 4. List four facts about depression in the elderly. Why is depression sometimes mistaken for cognitive disorders? Sadness, loss of interest, person is withdrawn; inability to experience pleasure, anxiety, paranoia, person might have sleep challenges and eating problems. In older people, sometimes the medical staff do not believe the person is depressed, they would rather think that they are Just being cranky or they are simply grumpy.Often depression is overlooked.

Define “whole person”:lt is a concept that concerns the whole person including their, physical, social, spiritual and psychological being. 5. What is the overall purpose of promoting the resident’s highest level of function? You are trying to meet the person’s highest potential for mental and physical performance.

Doing this helps maintain a patient’s quality of life. 6. List several measures you can take to enhance quality of life for the residents you care for.

Meet their physical needs while still encouraging them to maintain their independence.Try to help them feel loved, accepted, safe, secure, and promote their highest level of function. Normal and Abnormal Body Function 1. Define geriatrics: The care of aging people. 2. One change of aging is decreased sensitivity to pain, temperature, and pressure in the skin. Why does this occur? The skin has fewer nerve endings because the nerve endings retract. There is a loss of nerve cells as well.

3. Name some important comfort measures for residents with musculoskeletal disorders. Should activity be encouraged? Why?Comfort measures might be: gently turning in bed, assistance with walking. Activities should be encouraged to promote bone strength and prevent muscle cell loss 4. Why do older adults have a hard time distinguishing between blue and green? The lens of the eye yellows (the cataracts). 5. What is another name for a stroke? What part of the body is primarily affected? Other names include “brain attack” and “CVA” which stands for cerebrovascular accident.

The brain is the primary organ affected. 6. Why are the lateral and semi-fowler’s positions often ordered for a person following a stroke?They are comfortable positions to place the patient in without the possibility of them sliding down the bed. Semi-fowler has 30 to 45 degree head tilt, which helps prevent aspiration. 7. What risk factors for heart disease can a person control? Blood pressure, smoking habits, weight and nutrition (such as diabetes and cholesterol). 8.

Define edema: What does it occur? Swelling of body tissues due to excess water. It occurs with poor circulation. It’s often in the lower extremities because the blood pools at one location. Residents should try to elevate their feet to prevent edema. .

What are the normal changes of aging seen in the cardiovascular system? What often happens as a result of these changes? The heart beats with less force, stiffened heart valves, slow heart rate, abnormal heart rhythm, heart enlargement, thickening of heart wall, narrowing of arteries, less blood flow through those arteries, the weakened heart must work harder, decreased number of red blood cells. Results of these changes include: rest is needed during the day to prevent over exertion, performing range of motion exercises (great for bed ridden patients). 0. What resting position is characteristic of a person with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? The fowler position (45 to 60 degree head tilt), semi fowler position, and the orthopneic position (sitting up and leaning over a table to breathe).

DO NOT HAVE THEM LAYING FLAT. 1 1 . Why would you encourage activity for a person with respiratory disease? What other interventions would reduce the risk for complications of COPD? Activity mproves lung strength, helps remove mucus from the lungs, increases oxygenation of the blood, and prevents infection.

Other interventions that would help are: reduce tobacco use/exposure to second hand smoke, respiratory therapy, and exercise. 12. What effects do normal age-related changes in the GI system have on a person’s quality of life? Effects are: possible diet change due to diminished ability to taste and smell, difficulty digesting things, changes in your bowels (such as constipation, loose stools and compaction). 13. What characterizes a malignant tumor? It is invasive and spreads to destroy surrounding cells/tissue. It can return.

A benign tumor is not malignant. 14.What disease is characterized by the bodys inability to either produce or use insulin? Diabetes 15. Why is it important for the nurse aide to carefully monitor food intake in a diabetic? The amount of insulin that they are given is dependent on the amount of food they take in. They have to balance between the sugar they eat and the insulin they receive.

More starches and sugars means more insulin. 16. List some common signs and symptoms of diabetes. Excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, hunger, unexplained weight loss, slow healing sores, dry and itchy skin, blurred vision and neuropathy.