Study on thesuitability of wheat varieties for the production of malt syrup along with itsquality evaluation FARAZ AHMED PATHAN1,SAGHIR AHMED SHEIKH1, SHAHZOR GUL KHASKHELI1, RIAZHUSSAIN MARI1, ANEELA1 and SAJJAD AHMED21Institute of Food Sciences and Technology,Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Sindh-70060 Pakistan.2Departmentof Agriculture Engineering, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Sindh-70060 Pakistan.1Corresponding author. TEL:(+923443629803); EMAIL:[email protected] Abstract: The study wascarried out to examine the suitability of wheat varieties (i.
e. benazir, Anmolan SKD) for the production and quality evaluation of malt syrup. In addition toproximate analysis of raw wheat varieties, physicochemical and sensorialproperties of malt syrups were also examined. The result releveledsignificantly different (P< 0.05) average values. In case of raw wheatvarieties significantly higher (P< 0.05) average moisture, ash, fat, protein,crude fiber and carbohydrates content were found in Benazir followed by Anmoland SKD.
For malt syrup, significantly higher (P< 0.05) average pH value,moisture, turbidity, titratable, total soluble solids and protein content wasfound in malt syrup of benazir followed by Anmol and SKD. The result alsorevealed that average for sensory attributes i.
e. color, taste, aroma andoverall acceptability were also remained significantly higher (P< 0.05) inmalt syrup prepared from Benazir followed by Anmol and SKD wheat varieties. Itis concluded from present study that all wheat varieties are suitable forproduction of malt syrup. Key words: Wheatqualities, wheat malt, nutritional value, production method IntroductionWheat (Triticumaestivum L.) is the main source of human nutrition is also a part of ourdaily dietary needs.
Wheat is a staple food; it is grown on eight millionhectares in the country with the contribution at about 13.7% and it is veryimportant in the value addition of agriculture sector and takes part at about3% increasing ratio in the gross domestic products of Pakistan Pakistan (Nawab et al., 2011). Wheat is essential and provides more nutrients such asprotein ingestion all the world (FAO, 2014). Wheat is cultivated about tenthousand years ago as part of ‘Neolithic Revolution’ wheat makes up 30% of theworld’s total cereal production (Shewry, 2009). Wheat derivatives and wheatlike flour, wheat malt and starch are mostly used in the brewing industry.
Theobtaining of Belgian white beers, 40% un-malted wheat and 60% barley malt ismostly used. However the characteristics of wheat are different to one anotherso it mostly depends on the varieties of wheat. The set of brewers has nostrict specifications for it. The main components which are used to lackresemblance the various varieties of wheat are the hardness or softness of thegrain and protein content. The wheat which is mostly used brewing mostly of asoft variety contains good protein content at about 11%. This variety is easilymilled leading to a maximal extract yield (Sofie et al., 2004).
The brewing industries areengaged to produce good quality beer and low the risk of contamination and alsothe costs of investments. The raw materials are the chief source to reduce thecosts that impart malt and adjuncts from abroad (Sompong et al., 2011). The primary use of wheat is the fodder oflivestock. Wheat is traditional cereals selected for malting for the sake ofproduce enzyme the wheat at about 13% the formed worldwide is processed intomalt (Kuntz and bamforth, 2007). Extract of Malt is an all-natural, nutritiousand whole grain sweetener.
The fundamental aim of malting is to enhance theproduction of enzymes of hydrolytic which are not existent in the ingeminatedgrains (Ayernor and Ocloo, 2007).The syrup of malt is natural product and ithas good attributes of the present-day health conscious consumer. Malts of foodare expected to use it is because they are achievable in different fashions(e.g. liquid, solid, syrup) and also their color with various enzymatic,nutritional and micro-biological content. It is most common technique of modernbiotechnology and it is a substitute of common sugar in many industries (Bello-perezet al.
, 2002, Mitchell, 2004). The malt syrup is a good source ofessential amino acids. Therefore some extract malt beverages are not a propersource of protein but they may help to produce in a lower amount of theseessential nutrients. The syrup of malt may enrich the B-vitamin content of thebeverages contributing the thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and folate .It is alsoused in syrups and extracts for enhancing the flavor, color or sweetnessprepared foods like cereals, confections baked goods and beverages. Malting ofwheat is also used to obtain malt for brewing and food industries (Alka et al., 2014).
Materials and Methods TheStudy was carried out on the suitability of wheat varieties for the productionof malt syrup along with its quality evaluation. The experiment was conductedin the Food and Marine Resources Research Centre of Pakistan Council ofScientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Complex Karachi. Samples of wheatvarieties (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) were collected from the Research Instituteof Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam.
All samples of the wheat varietieswere brought to the laboratory of Foodand Marine Resources Research Center, PCSIR Labs Complex Karachi. Thesamples were washed properly with tap water followed by distilled water toremove dirt and dust. Then the samples were analyzed for the Study on thesuitability of wheat varieties for the production of malt syrup along with itsquality evaluation. Malt syrup productionSteepingCleaned and graded wheat samples were transferredinto a steep tank containing water at low temperature (10-20°C). The moisturecontent increased from 12% to about 45% during the steeping process. The waterof the steep tank was changed to every 6 to 8 h, constantly aerated to providedissolved oxygen for the respiration of wheat kernels till the preparation. GerminationCleaned and wet sacks were spread on steel trays and used as agermination bed. The steeped wheat was frequently sprinkled with water andturned daily to ensure even development and germination was stopped on 3rd day.
Steeping processwas carried out for (44-52 h), the steep out moisture of the sample from 43 to46 and the samples were germinated for 5-7 days at 16 º C. DryingAfter germination moisture content was reduced to(5%), the grains were dried in a cabinet drier at 65°Cfor 16 h. Once dried, all samples were manually de-rooted and ground into flourof required mesh size. The samples were stored in sealed polyethylene bags forstorage life studies at room temperature.
GrindingThemalt was passed through a milling machine to crack the dried kernels and grindthem into a coarse powder. The cracked malt was then steeped with small-scalemashing water bath called tun to a produce a thick sweet liquid called wort,using 50g of grist malt was mixed with 250 ml distilled water and stirred at100 rpm continuously. CookingHeat up the mixture to roughly 66 to 71ºC. Leave themixture at this temperature for up to two hours. During this time, enzymes inthe grain were converting the starch to sugar. Proximate CompositionTheproximate composition of wheat varieties include moisture, ash, fat, protein, titratable acidity and total soluble solids were analyzed byAOAC (2012) and total carbohydrate was calculated by difference method.
pHvalue was analyzed according the method as reported by (Ockerman 1985). The sample at about (10g) mingled with (90 ml)distilled water and transfer it into the beaker and electrodes accompanied withthe temperature probe were inserted to sample and reading was noted. Turbidity wasdetermined through turbidity meter (Veleirinho and da Silva, 2009).
StatisticalAnalysisThedata obtained was analyzed according to statistical process of analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) and significant differences of the mean were more computedusing least significant difference (LSD) test at 0.05% level of probabilitythrough computerized statistical package (Statistix 2006). Results ofProximate Composition of Wheat VarietiesTheproximate composition of selected wheat samples are given in table1. Themoisture content results of malt syrups made from three varieties of wheat(Benazir, Anmol and SKD). The moisture of these wheat varieties wassignificantly high in benazir malt syrup (9.83%), while anmol was alsosignificantly high 9.23% (Konvalina et al.
, 2009). The Ash of thesewheat varieties was significantly high in benazir malt syrup (1.60%), whileanmol was also significantly high 1.53% (Al-Eid, S.M. 2006). the fat of these wheat varieties wassignificantly high in benazir malt syrup (1.33%), while anmol was alsosignificantly high 1.
25% (Kumar et al., 2011). The protein of these wheat varieties wassignificantly high in benazir malt syrup (12.06%), while anmol was alsosignificantly high 11.
98% (Ali et al., 2002). The crude fiber of these wheat varieties wassignificantly high in benazir malt syrup (2.
73%), while anmol was also significantlyhigh 2.16% (Michael et al., 2013).The total carbohydrates of these wheat varieties was significantly high inbenazir malt syrup (72.45%), while anmol was also significantly high 73.85% (Sivasankar et al., 2002). However,the differences among all varieties were statistically significant at(P>0.
05). Results and DiscussionWheat (Triticumaestivum L.) is an important cereal crop, source of staple food and thusthe most important crop in food security prospective. Besides its tremendoussignificance, average yield is far below than developed countries. Wheat is thechief source of plant based human nutrition and is a part of our daily dietaryneeds. Being a staple food, it is cultivated on about eight million hectares inthe country with 13.
7% contribution to the value addition in agriculture sectorof Pakistan (Nawab et al., 2011). Themoisture content results of malt syrups made from three varieties of wheat(Benazir, Anmol and SKD). The malt syrup of these wheat varieties wassignificantly high in benazir malt syrup (24.
90%), while anmol was alsosignificantly high 23.96% (Jin et al.,2012). The pH results of malt syrups (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) The pH malt syrupof these wheat varieties was significantly (6.43) in benazir, while also highin anmol 6.07 (Jin et al., 2012). Theturbidity result (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) of malt syrup was significantly high(2.
27) in anmol these results were in agreement with the findings of (Chai et al., 2015). The result of titratableacidity malt syrup prepared from three wheat varieties (Benazir, Anmol and SKD)showed significant difference (P>0.
05) in each varieties. Titratable aciditywas significantly high (0.80) wheat malts syrup of SKD (Young et al.
, 2012). The result of TSS (Brix?)Total soluble solids (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) was significantly high (68.59) inbenazir wheat malt syrup (Bhatty R.S. 1996).
The result of protein malt syrupprepared from three varieties of wheat (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) showedsignificant difference (P>0.05) in each varieties. Protein was significantlyhigh (5.35) in benazir wheat malts syrup these results were in agreement withthe findings of (Wijngaard et al.
, 2006). Analysisof Physico-Chemical Parameters However,the differences among all varieties were statistically significant at (P>0.05). Sensory Evaluation Wheatmalt syrup was evaluated by panel of judges for this, 9 points hedonic scalewas used as per method described by (Larmond 1997). However,the differences among all varieties were statistically significant at (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONItis concluded that wheat (Triticum AestivumL.) is a good source of malt syrup production. It has capability for malt syrupprocessing (i.e., germination, steeping and drying). In the present study itwas observed in all among three varieties of wheat the suitable variety for theproduction of wheat malt syrup was “Benazir”. SUGGESTIONS Further studyshould be conducted in parallel manner in order to knowing their maximum shelflife of malt syrup.
Further studyshould be conducted on quantity of the alpha amylase Enzyme which is present inthe wheat varieties. ACKNOWLEDGMENTTheauthors are thankful to the department of Institute of Food Science andTechnology, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam for the proper mentorship andguidance to accomplish this great work. The authors are also highly grateful todirector food and marine research resource center Pakistan council scientificindustrial research center, complex Karachi, Pakistan for the provision of allresearch facilitates. LITERATURE CITED: Al-Eid, S.M. 2006. Effect of nitrogen and manure fertilizer on grainquality, baking and rheological properties of wheat grown in sandy soil.
J.Sci. of Food and Agri., 86(2): 205-211.
Ali, N., A. Ali and Z.Ali. 2002.
Effectof organic and inorganic fertilizers on wheat yield. Experimental Agriculture, 38 (04): 55-61.Alka, V., M.Manisha and B. Pinky. 2014.
Barley Foods and Health: Opportunities Ahead.InternationalConference on Intelligent Agriculture, vol. 63.
AOAC. 2012. Official Methods of Analysisof AOAC International. 19tH edition. AOAC International,Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
Ayernor,G.S. and F.C.K. Ocloo. 2007. Physico-chemical changes and diastatic activityassociated with germinating paddy rice (PSB.
Rc 34). Afri. J. Food Sci.
, (1): 37-41Bello-Perez,L.A., L. Sanchez-Hernandez, E. Moreno Damian and J. Toro Vazquez. 2002.
Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from bananastarch. J. Food Sci.
Technol., (53):44-48.Bhatty,R. S.
1996. Production of FoodMalt from Hull-less Barley. AmericanAssoc. of Cereal Chem., 73 (1): 75-80.
Chai Y., Y.Jin, J. Du, J. Li and K.Zhang. 2015. Partial characterization of ?- d-xylosidasefrom wheat malts.
J. Inst. Brew.,121 (3): 338-342. Haze intensity and foam stabilityof wheat beer.J. Inst.
Brew., 110 (3): 200-206.Sompong, R.
, S.Siebenhandl-Ehn, M.G. Linsberger, E. Berghofer. 2011. Physicochemical andantioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, Chinaand Srilanka.
Food Chem., (124): 132-140.Jin,Y. H., J. H. Du, K.
Zhang and X. Zhang. 2011.
Effects of wheat starch contentson malt qualities. J. Inst.
Brew., 117 (4): 534-540.Jin, Y.,J. Du, K. Zhang, L. Xie, and P. Li.
2012. Relationship between Kolbach indexand quality parameters of wheat malt. J.
Inst. Brew., (118): 57-62.Konvalina,P.,Z. Stehno, J. Moudry. 2009.
The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems. Agro. Res., 7(2):801-810.Kumar,P., R.K. Yadava, B.
Gollen, S. Kumar, R.K. Verma, S. Yadav. 2011. NutritionalContents and Medicinal Properties of Wheat.
Life Sci. Medi. Res.
, 22:1-10. Larmond, E. Laboratory Methods forSensory Evaluation of Foods. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture,1977, Publication No.1637.
Michael, O. Ameh. Dick I. Gernah,Bibiana D. Igbabul. 2013. Physico-Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of WheatBread.
Food and Nutrition Sci., 4, 43-48.Nawab, K.,Amanullah, M. Arif, P. Shah, A. Rab, M.A.
Khan, M.A. Khan and K.
Khan. 2011. Effectof FYM, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fedcropping systems.
Pak. J. Bot.,43 (5): 2391-2396.Nawab, K., Amanullah, M. Arif, P.Shah, A.
Rab, M.A. Khan, M.A.
Khan and K. Khan. 2011. Effect of FYM, potassiumand zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fed cropping systems. Pak. J.
Bot., 43 (5): 2391-2396.OckermanH.
W. 1985. Quality control of post-mortem muscletissue. Meat and Additives Analysis. 1st ed. Ohio State University;USA.Osman, A.
Coverdale, N. Cole, SE. Hamilton, J. Jersey, P.
A.Inkerman. 2002. Characterization and assessment of the role of barley malt endoproteasesduring malt and mashing.
J. Inst. Brew., (108): 62-67.Peter R. Shewry, Sandra J. Hey. 2015.
The contribution of wheat to human dietand health. Food energy and safty, 4(3)178-202.Sivasankar,B. 2002. Food Quality, in Food Processing and Preservation.
Prentice-Hall of IndiaPrivate Limited, New Delhi, 345.Sofie, A.Depraetere, F. Delvaux, S. Cogheand R. Delvaux Freddy. 2004. Wheat variety and barley malt properties: Influence onStudent,Edition of statistix version 8.
1 (Statistix 2006).Veleirinho,B.; Lopes-da-Silva.
2009. J.A. Proc. Biochem., (44): 353-356.
Ulmer, M. Neumann and E.K. Arendt. 2006.
The effect of steeping timeon the final malt quality of buckwheat. J. Inst. Brew., 111(3): 275-281.Young,J. Du, K. Zhang, L.
Xie, and P. Li. 2012. Relationship between Kolbach indexand quality parameters of wheat malt. J. Inst. Brew.
, (118): 57-62.