Study on the
suitability of wheat varieties for the production of malt syrup along with its
quality evaluation

 

FARAZ AHMED PATHAN1,
SAGHIR AHMED SHEIKH1, SHAHZOR GUL KHASKHELI1, RIAZ
HUSSAIN MARI1, ANEELA1 and SAJJAD AHMED2

1Institute of Food Sciences and Technology,
Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Sindh-70060 Pakistan.

2Department
of Agriculture Engineering, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Sindh-70060 Pakistan.

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1Corresponding author.

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Abstract: 

 

The study was
carried out to examine the suitability of wheat varieties (i.e. benazir, Anmol
an SKD) for the production and quality evaluation of malt syrup. In addition to
proximate analysis of raw wheat varieties, physicochemical and sensorial
properties of malt syrups were also examined. The result releveled
significantly different (P< 0.05) average values. In case of raw wheat varieties significantly higher (P< 0.05) average moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber and carbohydrates content were found in Benazir followed by Anmol and SKD. For malt syrup, significantly higher (P< 0.05) average pH value, moisture, turbidity, titratable, total soluble solids and protein content was found in malt syrup of benazir followed by Anmol and SKD. The result also revealed that average for sensory attributes i.e. color, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were also remained significantly higher (P< 0.05) in malt syrup prepared from Benazir followed by Anmol and SKD wheat varieties. It is concluded from present study that all wheat varieties are suitable for production of malt syrup.   Key words: Wheat qualities, wheat malt, nutritional value, production method       Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main source of human nutrition is also a part of our daily dietary needs. Wheat is a staple food; it is grown on eight million hectares in the country with the contribution at about 13.7% and it is very important in the value addition of agriculture sector and takes part at about 3% increasing ratio in the gross domestic products of Pakistan Pakistan (Nawab et al., 2011). Wheat is essential and provides more nutrients such as protein ingestion all the world (FAO, 2014). Wheat is cultivated about ten thousand years ago as part of 'Neolithic Revolution' wheat makes up 30% of the world's total cereal production (Shewry, 2009). Wheat derivatives and wheat like flour, wheat malt and starch are mostly used in the brewing industry. The obtaining of Belgian white beers, 40% un-malted wheat and 60% barley malt is mostly used. However the characteristics of wheat are different to one another so it mostly depends on the varieties of wheat. The set of brewers has no strict specifications for it. The main components which are used to lack resemblance the various varieties of wheat are the hardness or softness of the grain and protein content. The wheat which is mostly used brewing mostly of a soft variety contains good protein content at about 11%. This variety is easily milled leading to a maximal extract yield (Sofie et al., 2004). The brewing industries are engaged to produce good quality beer and low the risk of contamination and also the costs of investments. The raw materials are the chief source to reduce the costs that impart malt and adjuncts from abroad (Sompong et al., 2011). The primary use of wheat is the fodder of livestock. Wheat is traditional cereals selected for malting for the sake of produce enzyme the wheat at about 13% the formed worldwide is processed into malt (Kuntz and bamforth, 2007). Extract of Malt is an all-natural, nutritious and whole grain sweetener. The fundamental aim of malting is to enhance the production of enzymes of hydrolytic which are not existent in the ingeminated grains (Ayernor and Ocloo, 2007).The syrup of malt is natural product and it has good attributes of the present-day health conscious consumer. Malts of food are expected to use it is because they are achievable in different fashions (e.g. liquid, solid, syrup) and also their color with various enzymatic, nutritional and micro-biological content. It is most common technique of modern biotechnology and it is a substitute of common sugar in many industries (Bello-perez et al., 2002, Mitchell, 2004). The malt syrup is a good source of essential amino acids. Therefore some extract malt beverages are not a proper source of protein but they may help to produce in a lower amount of these essential nutrients. The syrup of malt may enrich the B-vitamin content of the beverages contributing the thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and folate .It is also used in syrups and extracts for enhancing the flavor, color or sweetness prepared foods like cereals, confections baked goods and beverages. Malting of wheat is also used to obtain malt for brewing and food industries (Alka et al., 2014).   Materials and Methods         The Study was carried out on the suitability of wheat varieties for the production of malt syrup along with its quality evaluation. The experiment was conducted in the Food and Marine Resources Research Centre of Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Complex Karachi. Samples of wheat varieties (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) were collected from the Research Institute of Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. All samples of the wheat varieties were brought to the laboratory of Food and Marine Resources Research Center, PCSIR Labs Complex Karachi. The samples were washed properly with tap water followed by distilled water to remove dirt and dust. Then the samples were analyzed for the Study on the suitability of wheat varieties for the production of malt syrup along with its quality evaluation.                              Malt syrup production Steeping Cleaned and graded wheat samples were transferred into a steep tank containing water at low temperature (10-20°C). The moisture content increased from 12% to about 45% during the steeping process. The water of the steep tank was changed to every 6 to 8 h, constantly aerated to provide dissolved oxygen for the respiration of wheat kernels till the preparation.   Germination Cleaned and wet sacks were spread on steel trays and used as a germination bed. The steeped wheat was frequently sprinkled with water and turned daily to ensure even development and germination was stopped on 3rd day. Steeping process was carried out for (44-52 h), the steep out moisture of the sample from 43 to 46 and the samples were germinated for 5-7 days at 16 º C.   Drying After germination moisture content was reduced to (5%), the grains were dried in a cabinet drier at 65°C for 16 h. Once dried, all samples were manually de-rooted and ground into flour of required mesh size. The samples were stored in sealed polyethylene bags for storage life studies at room temperature.   Grinding The malt was passed through a milling machine to crack the dried kernels and grind them into a coarse powder. The cracked malt was then steeped with small-scale mashing water bath called tun to a produce a thick sweet liquid called wort, using 50g of grist malt was mixed with 250 ml distilled water and stirred at 100 rpm continuously.   Cooking Heat up the mixture to roughly 66 to 71ºC. Leave the mixture at this temperature for up to two hours. During this time, enzymes in the grain were converting the starch to sugar.   Proximate Composition The proximate composition of wheat varieties include moisture, ash, fat, protein, titratable acidity and total soluble solids were analyzed by AOAC (2012) and total carbohydrate was calculated by difference method.   pH value was analyzed according the method as reported by (Ockerman 1985). The sample at about (10g) mingled with (90 ml) distilled water and transfer it into the beaker and electrodes accompanied with the temperature probe were inserted to sample and reading was noted.   Turbidity was determined through turbidity meter (Veleirinho and da Silva, 2009).   Statistical Analysis The data obtained was analyzed according to statistical process of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant differences of the mean were more computed using least significant difference (LSD) test at 0.05% level of probability through computerized statistical package (Statistix 2006).   Results of Proximate Composition of Wheat Varieties The proximate composition of selected wheat samples are given in table1. The moisture content results of malt syrups made from three varieties of wheat (Benazir, Anmol and SKD). The moisture of these wheat varieties was significantly high in benazir malt syrup (9.83%), while anmol was also significantly high 9.23% (Konvalina et al., 2009). The Ash of these wheat varieties was significantly high in benazir malt syrup (1.60%), while anmol was also significantly high 1.53% (Al-Eid, S.M. 2006). the fat of these wheat varieties was significantly high in benazir malt syrup (1.33%), while anmol was also significantly high 1.25% (Kumar et al., 2011). The protein of these wheat varieties was significantly high in benazir malt syrup (12.06%), while anmol was also significantly high 11.98% (Ali et al., 2002). The crude fiber of these wheat varieties was significantly high in benazir malt syrup (2.73%), while anmol was also significantly high 2.16% (Michael et al., 2013). The total carbohydrates of these wheat varieties was significantly high in benazir malt syrup (72.45%), while anmol was also significantly high 73.85% (Sivasankar et al., 2002).     However, the differences among all varieties were statistically significant at (P>0.05).

 

Results and Discussion

Wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop, source of staple food and thus
the most important crop in food security prospective. Besides its tremendous
significance, average yield is far below than developed countries. Wheat is the
chief source of plant based human nutrition and is a part of our daily dietary
needs. Being a staple food, it is cultivated on about eight million hectares in
the country with 13.7% contribution to the value addition in agriculture sector
of Pakistan (Nawab et al., 2011). The
moisture content results of malt syrups made from three varieties of wheat
(Benazir, Anmol and SKD). The malt syrup of these wheat varieties was
significantly high in benazir malt syrup (24.90%), while anmol was also
significantly high 23.96% (Jin et al.,
2012). The pH results of malt syrups (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) The pH malt syrup
of these wheat varieties was significantly (6.43) in benazir, while also high
in anmol 6.07 (Jin et al., 2012). The
turbidity result (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) of malt syrup was significantly high
(2.27) in anmol these results were in agreement with the findings of (Chai et al., 2015). The result of titratable
acidity malt syrup prepared from three wheat varieties (Benazir, Anmol and SKD)
showed significant difference (P>0.05) in each varieties. Titratable acidity
was significantly high (0.80) wheat malts syrup of SKD (Young et al., 2012). The result of TSS (Brix?)
Total soluble solids (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) was significantly high (68.59) in
benazir wheat malt syrup (Bhatty R.S. 1996). The result of protein malt syrup
prepared from three varieties of wheat (Benazir, Anmol and SKD) showed
significant difference (P>0.05) in each varieties. Protein was significantly
high (5.35) in benazir wheat malts syrup these results were in agreement with
the findings of (Wijngaard et al., 2006).

 

Analysis
of Physico-Chemical Parameters

 

However,
the differences among all varieties were statistically significant at (P>0.05).

 

 

Sensory Evaluation

Wheat
malt syrup was evaluated by panel of judges for this, 9 points hedonic scale
was used as per method described by (Larmond 1997).

 

However,
the differences among all varieties were statistically significant at (P>0.05).

CONCLUSION

It
is concluded that wheat (Triticum Aestivum
L.) is a good source of malt syrup production. It has capability for malt syrup
processing (i.e., germination, steeping and drying). In the present study it
was observed in all among three varieties of wheat the suitable variety for the
production of wheat malt syrup was “Benazir”.

 

SUGGESTIONS      

Further study
should be conducted in parallel manner in order to knowing their maximum shelf
life of malt syrup.

Further study
should be conducted on quantity of the alpha amylase Enzyme which is present in
the wheat varieties. 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The
authors are thankful to the department of Institute of Food Science and
Technology, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam for the proper mentorship and
guidance to accomplish this great work. The authors are also highly grateful to
director food and marine research resource center Pakistan council scientific
industrial research center, complex Karachi, Pakistan for the provision of all
research facilitates. 

 

 

 

 

 

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