Stereotype

Stereotypes and prejudice is the single most threat to the unity of Americans, it is not only a threat to unity but also the concept of globalization. Events such as terrorism, segregation and racism are on an ongoing basis being demonstrated. Notably racial profiling is one of the most recent of the manifestations. Stereotypes affect all mankind and in the case of America, the Indians have had to contend with century-old stereotypes which have simply “refused to die”.

The American Indians public exhibition did not originate with the Buffalo Bill, but they can be dated back to the history of the Europeans when they first encountered with Americans. Indians had appeared in small numbers in ethnological exhibits, medicine shows, circuses, and melodramas, but their presence gave the exhibits a putting of authenticity but not respectability. All the same the Buffalo Bill however changed the nature of Indian employment and ushered in the heyday of the Indians show. The origin of the Bill’s Wild West has claimed responsibility by various partners for its position.

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The Buffalo Bill , decorated with the honorific “colonels” as “Aide-de-camp” on the governors staff of the Nebraska state militia sailed from New York with Eight-three saloon passengers, thirty-eight steerage passengers and ninety-seven Indians many of them camped on the deck accompanied him abound the state line steamship far England. Sematologists or physical anthropologists have come recognized that the basic characteristics of the American Indians shows a relatively little diversity; their closest clear cut resembles the peoples of Mongoloid stock, the Asian people.

In pigmentation both are between the white or Caucasoid and the black or Negroid races; they have straight coarse, dark head haired and sparse body hair; cheekbones agree in size and projection as do the jutting jaws and face breadth. Both American Indian and Mongoloid have shovel-shaped incisor teeth and at birth they display the Mongoloid spot, a blue spot above the rump; many also have the Mongoloid or epicanthic fold of the inner part of the upper eyelid. The eye color is dark brown. Such physical divergences are amply attested by variations among geographical and cultural areas in both prehistoric and modern era (Dutton, 1983).

Introduction No primitive man on earth has ever fired the imaginations of European thinkers and writers to such a degree as did the American Indians. The Nobel savage dwelling in freedom in his Utopia was derived largely from the accounts of Indians, which were ubiquitous in Europe those times. Later on, James Fennimore Cooper’s romantic novels portrayed the Redman as an athletic skilled hunter statesman, which is an orator, warrior, relentless enemy and staunch friend, able to endure great hardship like hunger, cold and torture to the death without flinching, but his novels at the same time were labeled as being over-idealized.

Today our knowledge of Indians is much more extensive in which we speak not of a single stereotype but of many kinds of Indians, with each type with its faults as well as its virtues. Contrastingly there was probably more variation in personality type and customs in aboriginal North America and much more variation in the language (Driver & Massey, 1957). Even the physical type as viewed by the critical eye of the contemporary physical anthologists, shows there is considerable variation.

That is to say that, there are Indians and Indians and a statement about the race, language, or culture of one variety does not necessarily hold good for another variety. No one knows how many times America has been discovered by peoples from the old world, but there was unknown number of migrations or in filtrations of Indians from Siberia across the Bering strant to Alaska long before Europeans set foot on American soil and it might be even that a very high percentage of New World pap came by this route.

The main of present work is to depict Indian culture as it was before Europeans arrived but because the Indian left no written records and this must be reconstructed from scrubs. In some areas a fair amount in formation is available from European observers of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but the majority of data on North America Indians refer to the nineteenth century ( Driver & Massey, 1957).

In present day society 20-25 percent of all American Indians live east of the Mississippi and most Indians in the East as well as in the west live metropolitan areas of Chicago, Demurer, Los Angels, New York, Phoenix and Seattle. The Native Americans on the Eastern side like the Iroquois have had federal recognition through treaties with Washington. American Indians and the Native Americans have minor distinctive differences in physical and in their personality.

Native Americans have sought federal recognition for a long time the “outcome of a process that saw the establishment of government relationship between an Indian Tribe and the United States government. (Colo, 1992) In 1815-40 Historians of American Indian policies focused on the age of Jackson American Indians, a Native American more than in any other era. It is during this time when American Indians faced dispossession and death resulting from removal by force by the wars of conquest (Thornton, 1990).

Long before the current moral indictment of the Euro Americans of the time of Columbian Quincentennary, William T. s an Historian rightly determined that at their worst, the removal of the Cherokee and the members of Five Civilized Tribes approached the horror that was created by the Nazi handling of subject people. In contrast the Indian removal did not affect only Cherokees- American Indians and the members Five Civilized Tribes, but had an impact across other sections. In effect, Indian removal was the linchpins which helped the Democratic Party and at the same time tie the northern and southern wings of the party together after the election of Jackson in 1828 (Lafuer, 1979).

For the Indians there was a sectional and a party question and the support for Indian removal became a distinguishing emergency of the Democratic Party. Therefore, during the Jackson and Van Buren presidencies a political consensus in predominance on the state in Indian affairs permeated the Democratic Party to lead to Indian removals in New York, the Midwest and the South East. From the earliest day of Euro American settlement, the American Indians were usually pictured as the instigators of conflict.

In the nineteenth century, they were often deemed with hostility and as renegades’ intent a “savage war” Richard Slofkin in reality wrote a brilliantly accusation and is better understood as an act of psychological projection that made the Indians the scapegoats for the morally troubling side of American expansion, which became a basic ideological convention of a culture that was increasing itself being devoted to the extermination or appropriation of Indians (Slotkin, 1992) From the earliest colonial era onward, native American were also allies of Euro American World.

Viewing Indians as being hostile enemies ignores a major reality, namely that the earliest colonial era onward, Native American were also allies of Euro American During the civil war at least twenty thousand American Indians were in the military service, and yet the Native Americans are an important and totally neglected in the historiography of civil war.

Historians have exclusively focused on the Five Civilized Tribes the Cherokee, Chicksaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole in all histogriaphies from Annie Heloise Abel’s three volumes Classic written between 1915 and 1925 to more modern and updated treatments like the ones of Abrin M. Josephy. Jr. “The Civil war in the west (1991). The has been focused even in their military role in Indian Territory and environs; however, the war was a much larger reality for American Indians affecting communities east as well as west of the Mississippi River this was part of their neglecting the much contribution of the American Indians.

World awareness is limited concerning the persistent and continued existence in Dominica of the Karifuna people, the indigenous Island Carib Survivors of once powerful Caribbean tribe. The Carib presence is largely ignored and is notable to a great extent even within the Caribbean a Region which takes its name from Caribs. Lack of factual knowledge about present-day island Caribs is reinforced by the negative stereotyping of Caribs perpetuated in modern Caribbean history and in social studies textbooks.

The remaining Caribs in Dominion, or in Waitakubuli as the island was known prior to Columbus, are among the last direct descendants of the Arawak and Carib people who populated the Caribbean archipelago in pre-Columbian times; who their ancestors narrowly escaped the genocidal process that the European colonization unleashed against them [Reddock, 1996]. he role of Native Americans was quickly dismissed even though it was acknowledged in the civil war.

It was the scouting and in raiding where their contributions were appreciated (Wiley, 1952). They were often slovenly in dress, careless of equipment, neglectful of camp duties and indiscipline to prescribed routine and they seemed at times supporting the strongest force. (Massey & Driver, 1957). While recognizing Indian gall aping in combat for the union, Wiley insisted that their contributions to the United States of America ‘was admittedly insignificant and marked by large-scale defection’