SOCIOLOGY RESEARCH PAPERRANJAN KUMAR BHADANIBA.LLB C-43CHAINGING TRENDS IN THE INSTITUTION OF MARRIAGE AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING SUCH TRENDS1)MEANING OF MARRIAGE MARRIAGE IN A SIMPLE WAY IN SOCIAL SCIENCE IS AN INSTITUTION IN WHICH MEN AND WOMEN TO FAMILY LIFE.IT IS A STABLE RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH A MAN AND A WOMEN ARE SOCIALLY PERMITTED TO HAVE CHILDREN IMPLYING THE RIGHT TO SEXUAL RELATIONS.TAKE CARE OF ONE ANOTHER OR MORE OR LESS DURABLE CONNECTION BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE LASTING BEYOND THE MERE ACT OF PROPAGATION TILL AFTER THE BIRTH OF OFFSPRING 2)CHANGING PATTERNS IN MARRIAGE MANY CHANGES IN MARRIAGES IN PRESENT TIME EVEN IF IT IS ECONOMICS CHANGES AND CULTURAL CHANGES OR MANY MORE CHANGES. IF WE TALK ABOUT ANCIENT MARRIAGE THEN ANCIENT MARRIAE WAS MORE CULTURAL AND MORE RITUALS AND MORE FOR E.g saptpadi,kanyadan,and many more but in present era people focus only on more DECORATION AND SHOW ECONOMICS STATUS AND HIGH STANDARD OF LIVING OR MORE FOCUS ON CLOTHING STYLE.WE CAN ALSO SAY PRESENT TIME BRAHAMANS ARE ALSO NOT FOCUS ON MARRIAGE BUT DEMAND VALUBLE(COSTLY) GIFT FROM EITHER BOY FAMILY OR GIRL FAMILY THAT WAS NOT IN THE ANCIENT ERA. I HAVE ALSO SEEN IN A MARRIAGE CEREMONY THAT INSPITE OF TAKING SEVEN CIRCULS AROUND THE FIRE THE WEDDING COUPLE TOOK ONLY FIVE CIRCUL AROUND FIRE. ACCORDING TO HINDU MARRIAGE ACT 1955 WITHOUT SAPTPADI MARRIAGE DOES NOT COME INTO EXISTANCE.WE CAN SAY THAT IS ALSO CHANGES IN MARRIAGE TRENDS.3)CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN GROWING ECONOMICS INDEPENDENCE GIVING THEM MORE FREEDOM TO CHOOSE THEIR RELATIONSHIP.IN NOW-A-DAYS MANY WOMEN WHO ARE EARN OWN AND GROWING ECONOMICS INDEPENDENCE AND THEY CHOOSE RELETIONSHIP HIMSELF WHOME SHE WANT MARRY. AND DEVELOPE THEIR RELATIONS. IN THE ANCIENT TIME IT WAS NOT AS SUCH AS IN THE MODERN ERA WE CAN SEE. SO WE CAN SAY. THAT IS ALSO A CHANGE IN MARRIAGE TRENDS . IN ANCIENT TIME BRIDGE IS CHOOSEN BY ONLY BOY FAMILY . BUT THAT IS NOT IN MODERN ERA . IN MODERN ERA WOMEN ARE SAME AS MEN EVEN IF IT IS IN TECHNICAL FIELDS AND MANY OTHER FIELDS.4)GROWING DIVORCE RATE IN MODERN ERAIN PRESENT TIME NUMBER OF DIVORCE RATE IS VERY HIGH. ALSO IN INDIA SPECALLY IN NORTH-INDIA . ITS ALSO CREATED A NEW TRENDS IN SOCIETY. FOR e.g- IF HUSBAND NOT HELP WIFE IN HOUSE WORK THEN IN MODERN ERA ”DIVORCE” AND ALSO GIRLS ARE SAME. IN MODERN ERA DIVORCE RATE IS HIGH THAN ANCIENT ERA. WHICH IS ALSO A NEW CHANGES TRENDS. 5)GROWING SECULARIZATION (RELIGIOUS THINKING,PRACTISE AND INSTITUTION LOSE SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE)GROWING SECULARIZATION AND RELIGIOUS THINKING AND PRACTISE IS ALSO A BIG CHANGES TRENDS. SOME RELIGION FOLLOW SOME OTHER CULTURE AND OTHER RITUALS ARE DIFFERENT FROM OTHER RELIGIONS. WHEN BOY AND GIRL GETTING MARRIAGE. IF BOTH BOY AND GIRL FROM DIFFERENT RELIGION. THEN MARRIAGE COME INTO EXISTANCE ACCORDING TO BOY CULTURE. WHATEVER CULTURE FOLLOW BY BOY FAMILY AND RITUALS.GIRL FAMILY WILL HAVE TO FOLLOW(OBEY)RITUALS & CULTURE. 6)THE NUMBER OF REMARRIAGE HAS INCREASEDAT PRESENT TIME NUMBER OF REMARRIAGE HAS INCREASED. AFTER DIVORCED OR WHEN EITHER HUSBAND OR WIFE DIED THEN REMARRIAGE. ACCORDING TO INDIAN LAW(HINDU REMARRIAGE ACT)IN THIS ACT SAY THAT IF EITHER BOY OR GIRL BOTH HAS RIGHT TO REMARRIAGE AFTER DIVORCED OR DEATH OF THE EITHER PARTY(HUSBAND/WIFE) IN ANCIENT ERA NOT THAT TYPE OF ACT .PEOPLE NOT REMARRIAGE NOT ANY LAW BUT IN MODERN ERA REMARRIAGE ACT. WE CAN SAY. THAT IS ALSO A CHANGES TRENDS IN MARRIAGE .7)STANDARD TYPE OF MARRIAGE IN MODERN ERA IN MODERN ERA MARRIAGE IS MORE STANDARD THAN ANCIENT ERA. MANY NEW CULTURE AND RITUALS ADDED IN MODERN ERA e.g- RING CEREMONY, STANDARD RECEPTION PARTY, WHICH WAS NOT IN ANCIENT ERA AND MANY OLD RITUALS ARE FORGOT.ADDED NEW RITUALS AND CUUSTOMS.8)PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKELY TO COHABIT(BEFORE GETTING MARRIAGE)IN PRESENT TIME PEOPLE ARE MORE COHABIT BEFORE GETTING MARRIAGE AND CREATE BEHAVIOURAL RELATIONSHIP.MUTUAL SATISFACTION TO ONE ANOTHER.DEVELOP RELATION AND GET MARRIAGE. IT IS ALSO A TRENDS OF MARRIAGES THAT WAS NOT IN ANCIENT ERA BUT IN MODERN ERA WE CAN SEE EASILY THAT TYPE OF MARRIAGE (LOVE MARRIAGE)9)couple are less likely to marry in church in modern era people are less likely to marry in church.but which was not in the ancient era. in modern era people like marry in big and decorated restaurant. in ancient era people like to marry in temple. but in modern era we can see verry less that culture. we can say this is also a changing trends in marriage . 10) changing in the marriage age in modern era youth are today more careful upon professional growth in his life. they are believe that one should concentrate on achieve great or professional job and something different in their life. they believe to make themselves economically and mentally strong before getting marriage. thus we can say this is also a changing day by day. youth mind changing day by day in modern era. in modern era people using more technological way.11) in modern era devlopment of techonology changing trends in the marriage in modern era day by day developing techonology. and changing way to find either boys or girls for marriage through many online marriage website for e.g- shadi.com and many more online marriage website this is the resust of developing techonology day by day. i have also listen about online marriage by brahaman(pandit) through live video mantra pronounce online . which was not in ancient era.12)changing in the economics aspect of marriage in modern era practice of paying dowry is associated with economics aspects. dorry taking is illigal in india . but in india in one side dorry is illigal then other side women also promote dorry in rural area . for e.g- i have seen in a village mother of boy said that how we can marry our son in less dorry . then we can say women also promote dorry .13)how legislation changes trends in the marriage in india our legislation also changes trends in marriage through many amendment and through new law(rule) for e.g- hindu remarriage act, dorry prohibition act, widow remarriage act, and many more law and amendment.