An event may be a phenomenon or observable or extraordinary occurrence. It can be a gathering in form of a ceremony, competition, a meeting, a media event, a sporting event, a party, a happening or a festival (Godfrey & Clarke, 2000). Events are usually held in industries, interest groups and organizations to market, celebrate, build relationships and raise money. Events are usually classified as leisure, cultural, personal or organizational events. Many large cities have been holding events aimed at improving their economies and image in addition to creation of infrastructure.

Events are being used for marketing places and cities. This marketing is a result of increased competition among different cities. The city events are attracting the attention of stakeholders such as investors, policy makers and consumers. The increased integration of the world economy is drawing more cities around the globe to this competition. Due to competition most of the amenities, infrastructure and environment developed in different cities is becoming more similar. The similarities call for innovative ways by different cities to be unique amongst their competitors (Mason, 2008).

Many of events for marketing cities are aimed at levering capital from private investors to be employed in the development of infrastructure. Some cities for example are using signature buildings as a strategy of developing positive image about the city and creating a competitive advantage over other cities. Such undertakings are usually expensive in terms of costs. City events are used in the provision of flexibility to structures which are fixed in a city. Events can create landmarks as exemplified by the Olympic Games, which were held in Barcelona in 1992 (Hall & Page, 1999).

These events distinguish different places and significant interest by the media is generated at a very low cost. People may be encouraged to visit same place several times as a result of a series of attractive events held at that place. This is the reason why many cities launch fierce competition to host such events such as World Expo (Cooper, 2008). Cities are also employing cultural events for improving their images, offering its residents a new pride. Furthermore, these cultural events add life to the streets of the city concerned. Socio cultural impact of events Of recent, events and festivals have gained popularity.

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The themes of these events are varied. They include specific and multifaceted festivals. The origin of most of these festivals is the community as it responds to a desire or a need to celebrate its identity which is unique. The festivals or events are usually short lived public occasions, which involve celebration of a way of the community’s life that is valued (Godfrey & Clarke, 2000). The events are normally characterized with small numbers of people who attend and their scale is usually small. The events are a representation of a collision point of the community identity and the outer image of the community.

The impacts of events to the host communities are both positive and negative. The positive socio cultural impacts can be grouped as leisure or recreational impacts, health and safety, impacts on the infrastructure, and cultural impacts. In most cases events results in development of leisure and recreational facilities leading to increased opportunities for entertainment, which can be, used in future (Mason, 2008). Continuous events like tourism can result in well maintained public facilities in addition to restoring public facilities which are in existence.

Due to positive economic impacts of events the government may increase the security of the area by deploying more security personnel such as police in the area to ensure safety of the residents and the visitors. The values and cultural identity of the community may be promoted if they are the source of attraction of visitors to the area. Thus, events are instrumental in the process of building pride of a community (Ruspini & Dale, 2002). In addition, locals will be made aware of the available cultural activities.

Therefore community participation in the events is encouraged and hence increased. The increased participation makes the visitors and the locals to have shared experience of the events. The interaction between the locals and the visitors may enhance peace and appreciation of each others culture encouraging education. To this end, events expand the cultural perspectives of people involved, that is, both visitors and the local community. Events such as community festivals enhance community development and in so doing continue being a source of attraction to visitors (Cooper, 2008).

In addition, festivals act as a medium of contributing and building upon the sense of place of a community (Hall & Page, 1999). Events also help in defining and articulating the community’s character and therefore strengthening the identity of a community both within the community and outside the community. The lives of the local community can be disrupted by an event since they are characterized with crowding of shopping areas, problems of parking, traffic congestion and overcrowding of the locally available facilities.

Events can cause increased vandalism and crime in an area hence resulting in development of hostility directed at visitors who are seen as the cause negative change. Continued changes in the values and morals of the locals may result in loss of the community identity (Mason, 2008). As a result of events, the culture of a community may be forced to be accommodative to the needs of different visitors and this may lead to destruction of the cultural heritage of the community (Monye, 1997). A community that is not accommodative may be alienated by events. In addition, events can result in discovery and portray of a negative image of a community.

Due to many interactions that take place during events, some people, especially the locals may be influenced to start abusing substance such as hard drugs, alcohols and it may even encourage prostitution and other sexual misbehavior in a community (Yeoman, Robertson & Ali-Knight, 2004). Events are often associated with facility overuse and physical disturbances which deprive the locals from using them normally. Due to this pressure exerted on the limited local amenities, many of them may be lost or damaged during the process of holding an event (Ruspini & Dale, 2002).

Furthermore, due to increased number of events relying on volunteer support the pool of available volunteer may be depleted in the concerned area. Events sometimes are seen as intrusion to citizens. For instance there are changes in crowding, noise and traffic patterns. The change from usual community routines during events is sometimes viewed as an intrusion, which alters community way of life to provide a platform for entertaining other people (Cooper, 2008). Event management This involves creating and developing events, conferences and festivals by applying project management.

The brand intricacies are studied during event management. In addition, the targeted audience is identified and the event concept is devised (Jain, 2003). Furthermore, the logistics are planned for and technical aspects are coordinated prior to execution of the proposed event (Raj & Musgrave, 2009). Finally the event management involves analysis of post-event and ensures significant return from the event. Event management is used by companies as a tool for marketing itself and for communication purposes (Hall & Page, 1999). They often employ event management to launch new products, to promote its products and to hold press conferences.

The companies can achieve this through inviting audiences to attend their events or they can use news media to reach its audience (Monye, 1997). Event marketing meant to promote a certain product should ensure that those intending to purchase the product attend the event. Thus, the targeted audience should receive the message on the forthcoming event to be able to attend it (Proctor, 2000). Thus the organizers of the event should carry out the research on the profiles of those to attend the event for them to carry out effective communication to them about the said product.

For an event to successful market a product, those attending the event should comprise above 50% of target client of the product. For effective marketing of a product through an event, the value addition benefit granted to the business by the event planner or the venue should be evaluated. This helps the owner of the product to carry out pre mailing process for the purpose of promoting his or her trade show (Ruspini & Dale, 2002). The owner should also be involved in the distribution of the e mails and in the advertisement during the event.

The planer should also provide the product owner with contact information of participants both before and after an event. Prior to carrying out event marketing the product owner should ensure that the venture is worthy undertaking and is economical to his or her business. This ensures that the costs involved in the promotion process of the products are not greater than the anticipated sales and subsequent profits (Godfrey & Clarke, 2000). Any giveaways during the event marketing should be aimed at promoting the business and not free gifts.

In addition, the location of the event should be strategic so that the targeted group is well informed of the product (Raj & Musgrave, 2009). Thus well organized marketing events may help in leveraging a firm or its product. In addition, the cost of promotion of new products and the company at large are greatly reduced if the events are used to promote the firm’s products. Furthermore, a marketing event can help a firm to increase the sales of its products (Jain, 2003). In addition, the firm is able to create awareness to the public concerning its products.

Many companies utilize major events such as World Cup and Olympic games to promote their products and to give their firms a positive image. Such events have been instrumental in the growth of companies such as Coca Cola which utilize these events to market themselves. Many companies are competing to be involved in these events in order to reach out to world wide audience (Proctor, 2000). Impact on events marketing Event marketing is a process which involves development or designing an activity, display, exhibit or occasion that is live themed aimed at promoting a cause, organization or product.

It is also referred to as an event creation (Monye, 1997). Thus the audience attending the event should be a consumer or intended consumer of the product or a customer or intended customer of the organization or a stakeholder in the cause being promoted. How to hold a successful event in terms of marketing and management For a successful event, it should be both effective and economical (Monye, 1997). Recent research points out that use of e-mail to invite those to attend the event and online registration and payment is the most economical method for event marketing.

Personalized and targeted emails to those to be invited also ensure that an event is successful since the all targeted will be informed of the forthcoming event. This personalized e-mailing should be tailored in such a way that the interest of each group targeted is addressed since the response from people where the e-mailing is not tailored is usually below a half. In addition, if possible, the invitation should be addressed to specific persons or company instead of using blanket invitation such as “Dear client” (Mason, 2008).

Tracking the number of invitation and their status is essential in monitoring the launch of a campaign and the success projected (Raj & Musgrave, 2009). The use of e-mails is instrumental in overseeing the status of invitations and thus effective measure can be undertaken in case the response is lower than what is targeted. Creation of a web site of an event that is compelling makes the process of online registration and payment to be much easier for those to attend the event.

Discounts to those who register early and use of promotional codes enhance event marketing using web sites. The use of web site for registration and payment allows those planning for the event to ensure that those registered are not more than the event can support (Godfrey & Clarke, 2000). Seeking the attendees’ views on how to best achieve the objectives of the event prior to holding it is crucial for the success of the event. It is also important that the web site seek reasons as to why some of the attendees are unwilling to attend the event (Jain, 2003).

This can aid the planners in organizing for another successful event in future by addressing the issues addressed in previous survey from those who were not able to attend the previous events. Avoiding manual payments by adopting automated payment reduces logistical headaches associated with manual payments (Proctor, 2000). This helps both the attendees and the event organizers in tracking their finances effectively. Refund issuing should also be automated to reduce the hustles involved to make the event successful. In addition, the administrative tasks should be automated for an event to successful.

This will reduce time involved in manual administrative tasks and cut on the costs involved since few planners may be involved in the execution of the event (Mason, 2008). The organizers of the event should pay attention details and be well organized to enhance the quality of the event. Storage of information and data of the event in a single place is thus essential. In addition, organizers should be able to provide all necessary directions and alternative transport options available to the attendees of the event (Jain, 2003).

Data and information relating to attendees should be automated to track those who arrive and their departure times. Travel and agenda management ensure that the event runs within the set budget. If the treatment is customized all stakeholders will be impressed by the event (Cooper, 2008). The organizers of the event should carry out a follow up program to evaluate the how each event performed (Raj & Musgrave, 2009). This information is essential for customizing the next event to address the short falls of the previous event and thus ensures successful management of the proceeding events.

Thus continued contacts with the attendees ensure that evaluation process is successful. Conclusion An event is a phenomenon or observable or extraordinary occurrence. It can be a gathering in form of a ceremony, competition, a meeting, a media event, a sporting event, a party, a happening or a festival. Events are being used by many cities to attract investors and other stakeholders. These events are form of festivals, cultural gatherings and celebrations in addition to sporting and gaming activities. The uniqueness of the events held determines the competitive edge of a city.

Events are coupled with both positive and negative socio-cultural impacts to the community. Events help a community to establish its pride, promote social interaction; foster sharing of information and ideas gives a community an identity and ensures a community wellness. Other benefits to the community include increased entertainment infrastructure and appreciation of other peoples, culture. Some of negative impacts events include depleted volunteer personnel, intrusion of the citizens, strained facility and amenity use, drain on the morals of the community and overtaxing of the system.


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