Social foraging in some instances can have a lot of consequences in community level. Foraging can deal with prolonging questions which were previously analyzed to group forages. Social foraging does not require any origin in particular. It basically analyzes which is different to those pertaining to social origin and therefore they do not value antipredactory and energetic benefits as hypothesis. Social foraging emphasizes on interaction of the two benefits so that they can govern some currency of fitness. Many social foraging requires trade off to be analyzed.
Its trade off between the foraging gains and in avoiding the predictors but in this case not every social foraging requires the analysis (Girardeau, Caraco, 2000 Pg 6). In this aspect individual animals tend to compete for resources in bounded areas since they are located in a territory and they need to survive within that location which means that there must be struggle for the fittest. Within the territory individuals compete for food, mating opportunities and for their safety. Animals tend to fit themselves in those territories which suits them best and areas which they can easily adopt.
The territories must have boundaries which ensure that individuals are within their territory at all the times without exploiting other territories. Within a territory there is an increased competition among the groups since the individual animals tend to fight for the available resources which at time the number of individuals can outweigh that of the available resources thereby resulting to fight among the individuals. Some individual die to their might tend to dominate others it eventually result to despotism.
Animals in different areas within different territories fight for the available resources within those bounded areas. Individuals usually fight for food, mating, safety and manipulation of the habitat areas. This makes the animals to fit in different areas where they can best fit in. At time the animal divide themselves into breeding pairs in territories or according to the characteristics that they process. The territory which is habited by the animals depends on the environment and the availability of food, security and bearable conditions in the territory.
The environment within the area should be favorable for the animals to join the territory. Dominance can be based on age, sex and size of the individual. In case of age, the middle ageds are at advantage than the young and the old since they are strong enough to fight for the available resources. The old might be too weak to compete with the middle aged animal while the young ones do not have enough energy or else they are not able to look for food themselves and thus why they are mostly dominated by others.
Sex as another factor that influences dominance and it should be taken into consideration. When animals are being located in different territories especially when an experiment is being carried out, males seem to be more dominant than the female and therefore in struggle for the fittest the female can be at less advantage than the male since they are more energetic and mainly as the nature dictates males can be at better advantage of earning a living in very hard conditions than the female (Tollestrap, 1977).
Therefore, in dividing territories the ratio of male to female should be considered so that over domination by the males can be avoided. For mutual benefit, males should not be eliminated in the territory since they will compete for limited mating partners within the territory and if they are eliminated there will be no mating thus preventing them from breeding. The size of the both territory and individual animals also matters greatly (since animal’s need a large territory so that they can be free and to acquire enough resources within the territory.
The size of animal determines its dominance capability since the big sized animal tend to be dominant over the small sized which their ability to struggle is not the same. Therefore, within a territory, there are quite many things which can cause dominance but the strongest being male-female dominance. This makes individuals to have different social interactions within the territory. Animal foraging helps them to adapt to different territories since individuals have to find various ways of surviving in specific locations since individuals have to look for various feeding opportunities themselves.
In animal foraging when they are in a group they can choose for various feeding opportunities themselves which is mainly referred to as producer tactics or they can look for opportunities so that they can use food discovered by other animals. This type of tactic is referred to as scrounger tactic. These two tactics can be maintained in a group through dependence in negative frequency. This happens because producers mainly do better relative to scourge when the latter is rare and vice versa.
The stable equilibrium (SEF) of tactics which are used within a group shows that there is no individual who can increase its fitness through a unilateral tactic shifting use. Factors which influence SEF are: – patch distribution, extent of monopolization of source by the producer, and the size of the group. Venerable individual prediction can influence the location of the producer-scrounger foraging tactics. One of the potential factors that have greatly influenced producer-scrounger foraging is the danger of prediction.
Individuals who use scrounger tactics mainly tend to do it with their heads high and various studies have shown that there individuals survives better than those who hop with their heads facing downwards in their foraging behavior. Mainly scroungers are more likely to be centrally located in a group which makes them safer as compared to them being positioned at the edge. According to theoretical models, increased danger of prediction increases the SEF of the scrounger tactics in that particular group. In the case of north western crows, predictor’s presences have no effect on the scrounger tactic use.
Increased use of scrounge tactics which is based on increased prediction risk which benefits the scrounging may account for the shift. Difference among individuals which are based on vulnerability to prediction can be an influencing factor in the use of tactic decisions. An experiment carried out by use of the wing area reduction which as meant to increase individuals vulnerability to prediction was predicted that if scrounging will produce greater benefit of antipredictor as compared to producing, then experimentally the wing loading will result to increase in relative use of scrounging tactics individually.
In the procedure which was carried out, birds were given time so that they could familiarize with the environment so that they could adapt to it and cope for the experiment to be carried out in the environment that was favorable to the birds. For one to determine the outcome of the experiment, control should be set so that one can compare the result with the control to determine whether the procedure was successful. Conditions set should be different which gives distinct difference in carrying out the experiment.
According to the conclusion of the experiment, it signified that, those birds which had increased wing loading increased their individual vulnerability as compared to the time spent in scanning through the experiment after manipulation. For the controls which were in their normal environment without using loading they showed no change after scanning. Those birds which were manipulated, they showed increased investment in their scrounge tactics which should that their survival tactics were quite good than for those which were not manipulated.
Therefore, according to findings scroungers have greater intipredictor benefits than the producers. Another thing observed as a result of this experiment showed that changes in various conditions of individuals are greatly influenced by the use of producer or scrounger which showed that the decisions can be phenotype limited. In various avian species increased wing loading is quite significant in increasing vulnerability of prediction. Individual location strategies to producer can be influenced by vulnerability to prediction which can also influence scrounging foraging tactics.
It’s basically determined by the way an individual presents themselves either with their heads facing upwards or downwards. Head orientation i. e. head up foraging behavior have been used to show increased predictor as compared to head down foraging. Also in case the birds occupy the central position in their territory they are less likely to be captured as compared to those birds which occupies the edges of the territory where prediction is quite high.
Sparrows and raven have increased incidence of scrounging which are based on high prediction danger. In some cases risks sensitive foraging or any difference individual feeding in various different habitants may also have contributed adversely to the increased rate of scrounging within different individuals. In the case of solitary forager, they usually search food for themselves since they do not have any choice that to struggle in order to live. Therefore they must learn to be dependent which mainly results to social problems.
This problem has been viewed as producer scrounger (Ps) game which is mainly characterized by its dependent on negative frequency. Mainly two tactics can be mixed and the two individuals should adhere to them and in case thy deviate from them they cannot end up achieving a higher gain proportion portrayed when the two tactics are mixed depends on relative number of competitors and the availability of food the producer of any patch obtains before scroungers arrives.
The Ps games mainly do not take into account the effect of cost and the benefit of the patch exploration but instead producers and scroungers abandon the patch at once and therefore depletion occurs this chain continues the same as guided by the group foragers which at least comes up with a decision on whether to act as scrounger or a produce in the proceeding steps. Exploitation of solitary forager has been studied quite extensively by many scientists but their dynamics of path by social foragers has not attracted many people which make the dynamics not well known to many.
In the model of Ps it’s assumed that the producers will always remain in patch together with scrounger until depletion before they can look for new foraging opportunities. The results of competition activities are not well known in choosing for producers scrounger arrives. The patch diameter is mainly influenced by intake rates which are usually as a result of competition interaction various patch between the producer and scroungers. Effect of the patch diameter can be influenced by other factors which are not related to competition since only the non competitive abilities contributor to effect of the patch diameter.
In Ps game, assumption mode is that all those individuals who struggles and looks for food are likely to get food but if there is subsequent departure from patch they are not likely to get food at all due to their competitive ability with others which are quite low. If the producer can leave first greater opportunities are created for the producer discovering the next patch. Those individuals that usually leaves patches being the last, they can they are the one’s which are likely to be scroungers since they will have discovered new patches by the time that they are leaving.
Their departure whether it’s early or late can eventually lead to specialization into various roles of producers and scrounger based on various factors which are quite different from those that were involved in the Ps model game. There is quite a large number of competitors at the patches where there is decreased food intake which may eventually force the producers to leave the patch immediately due to lack of enough food within the patch and on a result of steep competition in those patch areas. If the scroungers exploit the patch, and then they return to central place after ensuring that the patch is exhausted.
In these patches individuals ended up staying longer than it was expected. This made them to take smaller loads in the presence of the competitors. In case the producer entirely uses the patch alone when, they are not joined by any scroungers, the result lead to the central place forager being affected by the competitor since they will try to exploit up to the central area. Competitor on patch residence time basically depends on when and how the competitor is effectively taking the food and at what rate is the intake.
In various studies the producers of various patches eventually leaves as scroungers after they have joined their food discoveries, early departures are mainly based on dominance of the scroungers forces which drives the subordinate producer away from the batch. Dominance is mainly influenced the producers choice on leaving the patch as scrounger arrives since pay off of leaving is usually more than that of staying behind departure choices can also be based on scroungers when they arrive at a newly discovered patch.
The new scroungers can consequently decrease rate of food intake that will be experienced by those scroungers who arrived earlier and therefore they can precipitate their leaving from the patch. Therefore in social foraging and functional efficiency different individuals have to come up with different ways of surviving in patches or areas where there is competition for the available resources to avoid dominance and increase their relationship between individuals (Hughes, 1993).