determinants of health are the most crucial factors that are responsible for
health status and its outcomes in a community. Over the past century, research
has delved into the different sorts of issues and elements that play a crucial
role in destructing health and also improving health outcome. These problems
and elements are described as factors of social determinants. These factors can
increase or decrease a level of health within a community or certain population.
Different facets of science such as epidemiology, psychology, sociology try to
integrate and determine these factors to help establish a motif why such
factors of social determinants can cause increase or decrease in health
outcome. The most important social determinants of health are housing,
education, support, income, employment, community, and access to healthcare.
One of the leading diseases in the United States is Diabetes. According to the
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “more than 29 million people in
the United States have diabetes, up from the previous estimate of 26 million in
2010” (CDC, 2017). This debilitating disease is the cause of lack of social
determinant and its presence within a community.


 The National Institute of Diabetes and
Digestive and Kidney Diseases, define diabetes as a disease that mainly occurs
when then blood sugar level is extremely high (NIDDK, 2017). The human body
utilizes these complex sugars as a source of energy to maintain homeostasis.
When blood sugar level rise, the pancreas produces a hormone called Insulin.
Insulin is crucial for the major system to utilize such sugars (complex) for
energy. Currently, there are three different distinctions of diabetes: Type 1,
Type 2, and Gestational. To understand the severity of this disease, The
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases describes the
disease as “more than 1 in 4 of them didn’t know they had the disease.
Diabetes affects 1 in 4 people over the age of 65. About 90-9 percent of cases
in adults is type 2 diabetes” (NIDDK, 2017). Given this, scientist has
deepened their research and collaborated with other facets of science to
determine the link between social determinants and diabetes. To understand
which determinants plays a significant role in diabetes, scientist broke it
down to each type. Type 1 Diabetes is defined as insulin deficient
(deficiency). In Type 1 Diabetes, the human body and its immune system
strategically attack the Beta Cells that make insulin. This disease is
genetically based, and scientist is still trying to find out the cause. Countless
research has been done, but no rectification has been established other than
insulin shots to help the community at hand.

for Type 2 Diabetes, it is defined as resistance to insulin. The human body and
its Endocrine system do not make enough insulin, thus leading to extremely high
levels of blood sugar. Type 2 Diabetes is more prevalent and can affect any
race, ethnicity, age, or sex. Social determinants are extremely interwoven with
Type 2 Diabetes. Statistically looking at the population and community that
Type 2 diabetes affects, the precursor has always been accessing to food that
is healthy. What you put into your body will yield results of health outcome
(exercise is also crucial). Such communities do not have the luxury to indulge on
health foods. Across the United States in multiple different areas (urban) food
desert exist (USDA, 2016). These impoverished areas typically have the highest
amount of diseases that are rampant as well. This problem are greatest
contributors to the nations rising obesity. The excess weight and accumulation
of visceral fat exacerbate the severity of Type 2 diabetes (Algoblan, 2014). Because of the lack of proper food and nutrition,
which are key social determinants of a community and also diabetes in the
Unites States. The more emphasis that will be put on the fact that obesity and
diabetes have reached extremely high record and its considered as an epidemic than
we can focus more on the disease itself and double down to fix the issue
(Bhupathriaju, 2016,).

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second social determinant of Type 2 Diabetes is access to health care. In the
United States, contained under the political spectrum, our population does not
have correct health care coverage. This lack of coverage is due to the nature
of laws and policies and also many times even associated with preconceived
diseases. According to the American Diabetes Association, “an estimated
16.0% of known diabetic adults were uninsured” (Zhang, 2012). The lack of
access of health care is a huge component of factors that act as a barrier to
decrease morbidity and mortality rates. Different research in access to health
care has proven a direct relationship in reduce rates and increase health
outcomes. Such disparities prey on the weak and worsen their current given
position. According to the World Journal of Diabetes, “estimated annual
health care cost for 2012 for diabetes and its resulting complication was 245
billion” (Clark, 2014). Given this information, if such sort of fund were
put to increase access and prevention methods, the rate of Type 2 diabetes
would decrease.

 Lastly, the most crucial social determinant of
Type 2 diabetes is community support. The idea of support arises from the
relationship that are built within confines of the community. These
relationships are designed to support an individual through mental, emotional,
physical, and psychological trauma that arises from Type 2 diabetes. It is very
important for an individual or community, not to isolate the individual that is
inflicted by such disease. The lack of social determinants often leads to
isolation and stress which will contribute to worsening condition. The
trajectory of help should solely focus on the betterment of the condition and
individual well-being.


The social determinant is primarily
used as an indicators aside from biological markers with respect to determining
a person health status. Research has indicated over and over again that with
lifestyle and community modification, that 30%-60% of cases can be prevented or
even decreased through such design modification (Tung, 2015). The most
important social determinants of health are housing, education, support,
income, employment, community, and access to healthcare. Introducing these to
its fullest potential can significantly reduce the chances developing Type 2
diabetes or reduce the severity of it for someone who already has it. This can
be accomplished by funding, guidance, and sheer will of the community to act
upon the resources that we have been given. Overall the goal is to minimize any
prevalence of diabetes and increase a healthier community through different
means such as social determinants. 


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