Significanceof the Study This study will benefit differentgroups of people in the society.First, the students, this study willhelp them become wiser in dealing with information. They will have idea towhere they should access news that guarantee a credible and truthful one. Second, the people in the society,this study will help them be equipped in handling the information they receivedso that they won’t be easily fooled by false information. Also, they will begiven an awareness that there is such misleading news that spread that couldbrought negative effects to them. Third, community leaders, thisstudy will make leaders realized that before they believe the information thatreached them, they should confirm it first, if not, it may lead to confusionand disorganization in the community. Fourth, the school administratorsand teaching force, this study will motivate them to enhance and strengthen Mediaand Information Literacy Class in order for students to be fully responsible ingetting accurate information.
Lastly, journalist and news mediainstitutions, this study will empower them to work harder in serving the masseswith accurate, true, and credible information, knowing that social media thatprovides false news starts to overcome their power.Scopeand Delimitation This study focused on recognizingthe Physics behind the most common used gadget as source of news, determiningits relevance to fake news, and finding out if there is the same effect of fakenews in two different locations (areas away from nearby town and areas awayfrom town area) and as a whole. The respondents were randomly selectedresidents of Janiuay, Iloilo who access news either through radio, television,or digital devices. The questionnaire used is a researcher’s made questionnairethat only limits to personal and factual questions that relates to therespondents’ access to news and familiarity to fake news. Definitionof TermsPhysics- the study ofmatter, energy, and the interaction between them. (physics.org, 2012) In this study, it referred to lawsapplicable to the concept of how gadgets works in providing information.Gadget- an often small mechanical or electronic device with apractical use but often thought of asa novelty.
(Merriam-Webster, 2017) In this study, it referred to radio,television, and wireless devices that connect to the Internet like phones, personalcomputers, tablets, etc. that are used to access news.News-newly received or noteworthy information,especially about recent events. (English OxfordLiving Dictionaries, 2017) In this study, it referred to recordof events or happenings in the society.
Relevance-the quality or state of being closely connectedor appropriate. (English Oxford Living Dictionaries, 2017) In this study, it referred to theinfluence of Physics behind gadgets to the rise of fake news.Fakenews- false, often sensational,information disseminated underthe guise ofnews reporting. (Collins English Dictionary, 2017) In this study, it referred to news storiesthat ware identified to be untrue and not credible.
Chapter 2Reviewof Related Literature Chapter 2 contains concepts,ideas, researches, and readings about the current study. It is composed of sixparts. (1) The concept of news, (2) Different sources of news information, (3)Common gadgets used as source of news, (4) Physics on how gadgets work incommunicating news, and (5) The concept of fake news. The Concept of NewsHumanbeings were born information natives. They always seek for information aboutthe happenings around them. Everyday they encounter news either fromneighborhood, television, radio, newspaper, the Internet, and etc. one of thevariables of this study is news information, the reason why understanding theconcept of news is much important. According to Farooq (2015), news isa record of any event, happening, or anything that concerns about the people inthe community.
Its goal is to give information, educate, interest people, andgive them idea what to think and how to act in the society. In Merriam- Webster (2017), news isdefined as a report of recent events. It is also a record of events publishedin a newspaper, periodical, or newscast. On the other hand, an Americanjournalist, Charles Anderson Dana, defined news as, “When a dog bites a manthat is not news, but when a man bites a dog that is news.” These quoted linesimply that for Dana, news says something about extraordinary events only thatdraws the attention of the people in the society. However, another Americanjournalist, Kurt Loder, defined news in a different perspective. For him,”Well, news is anything that’s interesting, that relates to what’s happening inthe world, what’s happening in areas of the culture that would be interested toyour audience.” He meant what the news is made up of, it is composed of thingsthat interest and relates people to what is happening in the world and culture.
(The News Manual, 2008) Mass Communication Talk (2011),suggested qualifications of an event to be considered as a news. First, itshould be timely or fresh, an event should be written and published within 24hours to catch the attention of the readers. News is like a perishable product,no wants it if it is already outdated. Second, it has the value of proximity ornearness. The news’ importance does not solely depend on its geographicproximity but also the its nearness to peoples’ interest. A terrorism attack onFrance will be less important compared to the rebellion that happened inMarawi, if the reader resides in the Philippines. Third, prominence, the biggerthe person or subject in the news, the greater the value it has. News storiesabout politicians, celebrities, athletes, and etc.
always draws more attentionof the readers. Fourth, magnitude, it refers to the impact of the news, thelevel of worseness or greatness of the news also require different amount ofvalue it has. Fifth, conflict, this refer to the issue discussed on the newsstory, if the conflict is about war, rebellion, conflict between thegovernment, people, and church, and etc. can make it to the news. Lastly,unusualness, it refers to the uniqueness of the news that has greater value incatching the attention of the people. Different sourcesof news informationAs news is happening every singlesecond, not all people can witness every event that happened. However, there wouldalways be witness to these events, they are the sources of news. The News Manual (2008), defined source assomeone or something that give people the information about the event thathappened.
The manual stated that a person, a written material, and audio-visualmaterial can be sources of news. There are different types of sources, theprimary and the secondary sources. Primary sources are the person who basicallywitnessed the event that happened, the police men who investigated on theevent, and anyone or anything who had the firsthand information about theevent. The secondary sources contain the processed information from primarysources.
Examples of these are the newspapers companies, police reports, aperson who have heard the event from someone, social media posts, blog posts,reporters or news anchors, and etc. Nowadays, in the Philippine setting,among these sources of news, there was one that bloomed gaining the trust ofmany Filipinos over other mediums as source of news. Ballaran (2017), stated onhis news article that 87.3 percent of Filipinos trust social media as source ofnews compared to 73.
4 percent trust on traditional media like television andradio.This survey was done byPhilippine Trust Index (PTI), they have 1 200 Filipinos as respondents who haveaccessed to news at least twice a week. Common gadgets asused as source of newsMass media plays a vital role innews. It is a conduit used to communicate news to the general public.
The massmedia comes with different platforms in spreading information. Through theyears, it evolved and developed into something that is more accessible andconvenient to the consumers. TheEvolution of Mass MediaThe mass media started spreadingnews to the public through print media like newspapers and magazines. This iswhere journalists come in, they were considered to be the gatekeepers of newsmedia. They gather news, edit it through editorial processes and followingjournalistic ethics then they will release it to the public.Later on, comes the rise oftechnologies and digital media were given birth. It is where news was alreadybroadcast through television and radio. In tv broadcast, audience now can watchand observe with their eyes events happening around them.
While, on radio, theycan already listen to the news without reading it. Presently, we now live in adigital world. We no longer rely on newspapers, tv and radio broadcastscompletely. News now comes with less effort, news now is just on the tip of ourfingers that is due to the reign of the Internet. Gadgets like phones, laptops,tablets and other wireless gadgets that can connect to the Internet were nowpart of the lists of the sources of news information.
(CliffNotes, 2016) Meanwhile, European Federation ofJournalists (2017), released a news article discussing social media used as asource of news is drastically growing. Due to the Internet, people now haveaccess to social media which can be made through gadgets like phones, personalcomputers, tablets, and etc. based on 2016 report on digital news, 51 percentof people in the world use social media as source of news. Facebook, with 44percent was determined to be the most valued network for news information. Thesaid survey was conducted in 26 countries across the globe. Physics on howgadgets work in communicating news Basing on the evolution of massmedia, common gadgets as source of news are traditional media which includesradio and television and the new media gadgets which are phones, personalcomputers, tablets, and etc.
however, traditional and new media have differentmeans of providing news to the masses. a. Tv and radioTv and radio companies haveground based transmitter which sends electrical signals on the waves in the airto reach a receiver. It travels kilometers away reaching a certain range oflocation.
In radio, the sound from thesound source example is the voice or audio that the radio station wants to sentto the listeners will be converted to electrical energy caused by the vibrationof charged particles, electrons. Its vibration can produce electricity andmagnetic fields. It follows the principle of electricity. When there isinteraction between particles electricity is produced there magnetism also ispresent. The transmitter antenna moves electrical charges to produce signalwaves in space. The transmitter has an oscillator, a device that causes theparticles to move in a rapid motion.
It can cause 1 000 000 cycles per secondor 1000 kilohertz to 1 megahertz. Also, a transformer is use in transmitterantenna to modulate the strength of the radio wave. It changes the strength ofthe wave based on the desired loudness of audio the radio station wanted totransmit. (Yerkes Summer Institute, 2012)Television like radio, make usealso of transmitter. It requires a much greater frequency because it carries audioand visual information. Which means that the transformer modulates much greaterstrength of the radio wave. Tv makes use of 54 to 88 MHz (Megahertz) and 174 to222 MHz frequencies.
These frequencies suggest different channels. Meanwhile,radio utilizes 3KHz to 300 GHz frequencies. (Lumen Learning, 2017)According to Tech-Faq (2016),television broadcast works on having a transmitter. The audio and the videosignals from the sound and image source were converted to electrical energythen sent by transmitters into the air waves for receivers which tv boxes athome access. The receiver will receive the signal and make it into a signalthat can generate image and sound through vibrations. With the help oftechnology like the Cathode Ray Tube, converts signals into visible light whichallows viewers see the program.In addition, there are three wayson how tv programs transmitted. First, through broadcast tv.
It is where thereis a ground based transmitters of broadcasting companies that transmit thesignals both audio and video in the air waves and tv antennas can pick it for freeand viewers now can watch the tv program. In the concepts of radio and tvbroadcasts, this relates to Ohm’s Law by George Simon Ohm. This law relatesvoltage, current, and resistance. According to The Physics Classroom (2017),Ohm’s Law states that voltage is equal to the product of the electric currentand resistance. In the concept of radio wavetransmission, voltage can refer to the wave signal determined by the oscillatorthat acts to make the charges vibrate.
The signal strength depends on the flowof radio waves in the space going to the receiver antenna and on resistance.Resistance is the length of the receiver antenna and the transformer. Theantenna the stronger signal it can get. Transformer also modulates the strengthof the radio waves to be sent which can affect the signal received by thereceiver. b. Wireless gadgetsAnother way of getting news isthrough wireless gadgets like cellphones, laptops, desktops, tablets, and etc.these gadgets work on providing news through the Internet.
Me and My Shadow (2016), definedthe Internet as a group of networks that are interconnected with each otherthrough electronic, wireless, and optical technologies. Engineers Garage (2012),discussed that the Internet can be accessed in different ways based on thegadget used. Using mobile devices, the Internet can be accessed throughtelephone service providers or via Wi-Fi. The Wi-fi allows mobile devices toconnect to the Internet via data transfer. Based on Commotion Wireless (2012),Wi-Fi frequency ranges lies in 2.4 Gigahertz and 5 Gigahertz, higher than ofthe tv and radio frequency. On the other hand, mobile devices connect to theInternet through telephone services providers. Mobile devices have built inantennas that connects to the cell towers through the radio waves.
These towerswere operated by telephone service companies transmitting digital data toreceivers. However, personal computers havedifferent way of accessing the Internet. It makes use of Wireless Access Point(WAP) which provides Internet connection by sharing of Internet access byseveral computers from a single connection. The Internet Service Provider havea cellular radio tower that reaches long distances to provide Internet accesspoint. In the electromagnetic spectrum,waves are arranged according to their wavelengths and frequencies. Themeasurement of their wavelengths and frequencies have inverse relationship. Thelonger the wavelength the weaker the frequency and the shorter the wavelengththe stronger the frequency.
According to Lumen Learning (2017), extremely lowfrequency radio waves that are used in communicating under the water like insubmarines, happened because of the long wavelength of the waves. The longerthe wavelength the wider the range they can penetrate. The reason why radio andtelevision can still be accessible in areas away from its signal source becauseradio and tv make use of longer wavelengths that can reach far locationscompared to those used by Wi-Fi connections. However, cellular signals andWi-Fi signals are weaker in areas away from their transmitters like cell towersand internet towers because their wavelengths are shorter and there are somefactors that block the signal like mountains, trees, and etc., but they havestronger frequencies. Onthe other hand, the concept of Coulomb’s Law relates to both tv and radio andinternet access. The concept that the nearer the receiver from the sourcesignal, the stronger the signal it receives.
The Coulomb’s Law states that anelectrostatic force is directly proportional to the product of the charges andinversely proportional to the square of the distance of the charges. (ThePhysics Classroom, 2017) The Concept of fakenews In an article in CNN Philippines by Bueno (2017), itwas stated there by a veteran journalist, Ellen Tordesillas of Vera Filesorganization, that ‘fake news’ is an oxymoron for the word ‘lies’. Oxymoron wasdefined in Literary devices (2017), as a figure of speech that presents twoopposing ideas being joined together. In the word fake news, two opposing ideasare fake and news. Fake means not true or genuine and news have a concept thatguarantees credibility and truthfulness. Allcott and Gentzkow (2017), defined’fake news’ as news stories that were false and misleading and were made thatway intentionally.
They also determined where ‘fake news’ came from when theyconducted a study on 2016 elections in United States. They pointed out that’fake news’ came from social media. 62 percent of adults in US access news onsocial media, most fake news was widely shared on Facebook over legitimate newswebsites. They also added that ‘fake news’ came from websites that were createdto spread false information. In the Philippines, Catholic BishopsConference of the Philippines (CBCP) showed public the list of popular websitesthat contains ‘fake news’. Pinoy Trending -http://pinoytrending.
altervista.org/Pinoy Trending News -http://pinoytrendingnews.net/Public Trending -http://www.publictrending.net/FilipiNews PH -http://www.filipinewsph.
com/Trending News Portal -http://www.trendingnewsportal.net.ph/Classified trends -http://www.
classifiedtrends.net/Definitely Filipino -http://definitelyfilipino.com/Duterte News Info -http://www.
du30newsinfo.com/Extreme Readers -http://www.extremereaders.com/Get Real Philippines -http://www.
getrealphilippines.com/Guard1an – https://theguard1an.com/Kalye Pinoy -http://www.
kalyepinoy.com/Leak News PH -http://www.leaknewsph.com/Media ni Duterte – http://www.dutertedefender.com/Minda Nation -http://mindanation.
com/Netizens PH -http://www.netizensph.com/News Media PH -http://www.newsmediaph.com/News Titans -http://www.newstitans.com/OKD2 – http://okd2.com/Pinoy Freedom Wall -http://www.
pinoyfreedomwall.com/Pinoy Viral Issues -http://www.pinoyviralissues.net/Pinoy Viral News -http://pinoyviralnews.com/PinoyWorld -http://www.pinoyworld.
net/SocialNewsPH -http://www.socialnewsph.com/TahoNews – http://www.
tahonews.com/TheVolatilian -http://www.thevolatilian.com/Thinking Pinoy -http://www.thinkingpinoy.net/TrendingBalita -http://www.trendingbalita.
info/TrendTitan – http://trendtitan.com/ Chapter 3ResearchDesign and Methodology Chapter 3 presents (1) the design of the study and(2) the methodology which consists of details about respondents, researchinstruments, and process and procedure.Research Design This study focused on determiningthe concepts of Physics on how gadgets work in providing news information andits relevance to the rise of fake news. This study used a survey research andthrough this it looked forward to spot the relevance of the most common usedgadget as source of news to the emergence of fake news when locations werecompared. Locations on nearby town area, locations kilometers away from nearbytown, and as a whole. MethodologyRespondents Respondents were residents ofJaniuay, Iloilo. Using the Slovin’s Formula, respondents were determined.
Slovin’s formula includes the total population of the target area and themargin of error in determining sample size. Based on the 2015 Census, Janiuayhas 63 905 total population. Using the formula, it resulted to 398 sample size.These sample size were divided into two, the half would be the respondents awayfrom the nearby town, and the other half would be the respondents who wereresiding on nearby town areas.
They were randomly selected for this study. Therespondents have their acess to tv, radio, cellphones or computers.ResearchInstruments After the respondents weredetermined, researchers made a questionnaire containing personal and factualquestions with regard to the manner on how respondents access news and theirfamiliarity to famous fake news that spring up in the society. The respondentswere given set of questions having possible choices to be answered and each choicescorrespond to a specific level of intensity of what is asked from themcredibility of the questionnaire was guaranteed because it was validated bythree persons who have been gurus in the field of our study.
Processand Procedure In determining respondents Slovin’sformula was used. The conduct of the survey to respondents was done carried anin the stage of determining the results of the study. To come up with theresults, researchers used statistical analysis. The average mean, range,standard deviation and variance were solved from the results of the survey.Results were understood and evaluated by the researchers to come up with asolution that will benefit the society.