Section 1:This investigation will answer the question, to what extent have cases such as Mendez V. Westminster and Lemon Grove cases influence Latinos Education in the 1940’s? The question is important because I feel as the Chicano Movement and the steps taken specifically in this case really showed what these people were fighting for. Growing up in school, I feel as if it’s very much the same parts in history, the emphasize of what others cultures went through for their rights, does not have the same emphasize as Latinos. Well not necessarily in the education aspect, I don’t recall ever learning about this or being aware until this research paper. The scope of the investigation is in the 1940’s specifically in California. Phillip Zonkel; Righting a wrong Mendez v.
Westminster brought a end to segregation in O.C schools – and ultimately a nation. Researching Zonkel, I couldn’t exactly locate the origin of the author but found many other articles, for the same writing company the Press Telegram as well as for the daily news. However the limitations about this could be that the only way to know more about the credibility of the author was through email, but based on the articles he had written the most recent dated back to the year 2011, so I wouldn’t be too sure, whether or not the email was still valid. A value I would be assuming is, that his work might be credible since he wrote several articles after the one he wrote about the case.It appears that the author’s purpose for this article would be to show what happened, during this time in California.
The injustices the Latino children, went through in part of the school district. The segregation, between the colored kids at a school campus, the article also mentions the Brown v. Board of Education. However the purpose of the article was to show that these people were going to stand up even if the Orange County School District rejected their request and the efforts that went with this case so that the children could have education. The content of the article involves various quotes from attorneys as well as specific dates and people involved with the case, throughout the article. This would serve as a value since we have primary sources of actual examples of what was said.
Alvarez, Robert R., Jr.; “The Lemon Grove Incident.” San Diego History Center | San Diego, CA | Our City, Our Story. 1984. Researching Alvarez, he was the first prize winner for the Weinberger Award, Alvarez was also a equality pioneer. I also found how Alvarez, published a book called, “Migration and Adaptation in Baja and Alta California, 1880-1975.
” The book talks about the challenges of the the movement Mexicans go through when migrating to the United States. Alvarez is an Associate Professor of Anthropology at Arizona State University. So we can really see the involvement of Alvarez during the time in which Latino families were migrating to the United States, and I would consider this a value since the involvement could make his work more credible.
It appears that the author’s purpose of the article would be to really outline what happened during the trials. It really serves as a outline of the beginning of the case all the way through the court. This serves as a value since it shows specific examples of what happened with the jurs and other people’s involvement with the case. The content in the article makes the case very understandable for the reader. Not only is there the whole conversations, throughout the article there is also specific figures who had involvement in the case. I also noticed how the author has footnotes between paragraphs which aren’t exactly very specific until the end. This can serve as both a value and limitation since it has extra information which can really help us understand the case but a limitation since its throughout the article and can get confusing learning more about it in the end.
Section 2In 1942, The United States passed a Bracero Program which allowed immigrant Mexican workers to come work in the fields, for a certain amount of time while there was crops. This helped start the migration of Latinos. People came to start a better life for themselves and their children. Many of these workers as well joined the military and went to fight in WW1, veterans feeling proud of helping the United States win, used their GI benefits to provide for their families, buy new homes and even pay for college. However during this time there was still segregation to the people of color and many Mexican-American parents sued the several school districts and try to stop the segregation of latinos in schools.
It wasn’t until the Mendez V. Westminster case that the Supreme Court were in favor of the Mendez children ruling out segregation violated the children’s rights. This would soon influence a part of the Brown v.
Board of Education during 1954. This case ruled out the Plessy v. Ferguson decision, which used the quote, “separate but equal” to justify certain segregation rules in public places including schools.
In 1963. The Ford Foundation helped open the first bilingual school- Miami’s Coral Way Elementary School. This influenced for other schools to be bilingual as well and for families to be more comfortable with the school district. This was later justified with the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974, which gave children, the same education not depending on their skin color.
Although schools were not segregated anymore, Latino students were still treated unequally. This was most commonly heard in Los Angeles high schools. In 1968, the students of Garfield high school started organizing walkouts. They insisted on smaller class size, more Latino teachers and the revision of history books that would include Latino history.
They had support from teachers and administration, they organized a walkout. In the course of three days, students would leave school and instead protest. Everyday there was angry police and administration but this did not stop the students.The L.A board of Education finally agreed to hear them out and the students addressed all their concerns. However during the trials there were conspiracy that members involved in the movement, and although the members were bailed out, this affected the case.
The students needs were not granted but this did not stop the students, but instead they gained support from the Chicano community. I believe that since the segregation going on during this time period had the biggest effect on the youth and the families of those who came to this country for a better future. We see how the migration of the Bracero program encouraged people to come to the United States and may have been another reason to fight for this country. The United States gave them a opportunity to come to this country to work and this may have motivated people to fight in WW1. But after seeing the way they were treated after coming home even after what they had gone through, the injustices their families were going through were not fair.
After the Lemon Grove and Mendez V. Westminster case and the ruling of the Supreme Court showed that they had every right to be here just like those who were already here. Although there may have been instances where the riots and protests may have not been effective but this never stopped the Chicanos from fighting for what they believed in. They eventually banned segregation and Latinos had more rights than before. Section 3In the historical investigation presented I used Secondary sources, all the information researched was from many sources from the internet. Most of the sources used in the investigation were scanned newspaper reports, the limitation of this not being a primary source is that, the newspaper were written in the towns where the incident occured and are now a piece of history which would’ve made it difficult to be able to receive a copy of the articles.
I believe that gaining the information was easy to find however it was difficult finding out the credibility of the sources. This affected my research since the credible sources were difficult to find but the sources found made my analysis of my questions straightforward. Overall I checked whether or not the sources were credible, however I feel as the only way to determine whether or not the sources were credible can be analyzed with comparing other articles to see whether or not it was credible. During the investigation I tried to not be “bias,” do my ethnicity but used my historical point of view during the time period along with keeping an open mind on the topic. However I feel as if all history in a way can be bias due to those writing it, it seems as if the victors are usually the ones in charge of writing how things may have happened. Usually the ones who are, are those who have wealth, but in my research it happened otherwise the victors were humble people who just wanted the best for their children. Finally, the scarcity of the evidence that was found may have affected my research due to the limited amount of credible sources and articles which were very similar.
Both cases seemed to be straightforward with the way the evidence was builded on and the outcome of what was done. I feel as certain judgements happen for a reason, the way we learn, grow and get justice for our actions are done for a whole community of people.