Second attemptCardiovascularsystem   In the centerof the cardiovascular system, there is an organ called the heart. Underneaththe sternum, the heart is found on the left side of an individual’s chest. Youcan easily predict the size of an adult’s heart by the size of their closedfist.

Inside the heart, there is a hollow muscular pump. It effects themovement of the blood travelling through the arteries. Functioning thearteries, the heart would carry the blood to the tissues and the working cells.On the rightside of the heart, the deoxygenated blood would move inside it in order to pumpthe blood towards the heart.

After entering the right ventricle, the heartwould then pump blood around the human body.  The heart is surrounded by a two layered sacwhich is called percidium. Normally, the pericardial fluid would pack thecavity which is in the middle of the layers. The pericardial fluid would have areason of stopping the friction from happening. For example the heartbeat. The heart wallhas three primary layers. These are epicardium, myocardium and endocardium.

Theendocardium is the outside part of the heart wall. The myocardium is the middlelayer of the heart wall. This layer is very hard and would strengthen the heartwall and would make most of this heart wall. The endocardium is inside theheart wall.

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The left side of an individual’s heart would separate the rightside. The left side would separate it by using a very hard wall. This hard wallis called the septum.

The heart ofthe human body has four chambers. On the left side, two of these four chambersare found. On the right side the other two chambers are found. The two chambersthat are found on the left side would work separately from the two chambersthat are found on the right side.

The gaseous exchange would happen because thearterioles, arteries and capillaries would give the two chambers on the rightside a low blood pressure towards the lungs.The heart,blood and blood vessels are all part of the cardiovascular system. Thecardiovascular is one of the systems that would carry. Each cell in the humanbody would have oxygen, food and other important products in them because thecardiovascular system is a system that would carry them. Carbon dioxide andwaste products of an individual’s body are all removed by the cardiovascularsystem.There are twocirculatory system in the human body.

The blood would go through the heart twotimes and the circulatory system would have two separated circuits. Inside thered blood cells would be hemoglobin. Oxygen would normally happen by hemoglobinand carbon dioxide that is inside the lungs is removed from the blood. One ofthe main jobs of the systemic circuit is to carry the blood around the humanbody. It does this to send the oxygen and bring back the de-oxygenated blood tothe heart.

The nutrients and the waste would both be carried by blood.The rightventricle and the right atrium have a tricuspid valve located in the middle.The right ventricle would have blood moving to it from the right atrium by thetricuspid valve. However, it will not move back. There are three valve leafletsin the tricuspid valve. These three valve leaflets are types of chords whichare chordac, annulus and papillary. The valve is stopped and kept in one placeby these three chords.

There are fourvalves in the heart and the aortic valve is another type of valve. In themiddle of the aorta and the left ventricle, the aortic valve is found. Thisvalve is located at the bottom of the aorta. When the ventricular musclesrelax, the aorta valve would open and would let the blood to move away from theleft ventricle because it would contract when the ventricular musclesrelax.  The aorta wouldclose so it can stop the blood from going back into the ventricular chamber.There are four valves in the heart and the pulmonary valve is also another typeof valve.

In the middle of the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle, thepulmonary valve is found. From the pulmonary artery, the pulmonary valve wouldstop the blood from moving back to the pulmonary artery. There are threeleaflets that the pulmonary valve would normally have.At the bottomof the pulmonary trunk, the pulmonary artery is found. When the right ventriclecontacts, the pulmonary valve would open. The blood would go back to thepulmonary trunk when the right ventricular muscles relax. To stop the bloodmoving back into the ventricular chamber, the ventricular muscles would closethe pulmonary valve. The humanbody’s first artery is called the aorta.

Except for the lungs or the humanbody, the aorta would start inside the left ventricular and would carryoxygenated blood to each part of the human body. From the brachiocephalicartery and the aortic arch the three key arteries would start. The head and thebrain would both be given blood from the aortic arch and the brachiocephalicartery. The leftsubclavian artery and the carotid artery. On the top chamber of the heart, theatria is found. The right atrium and the left atrium are two parts of the topchamber of the heart. From the lungs or the human body, the right atrium andthe left atrium would gain more blood and would go back to the heart. From theinferior vena cava and the superior vena cava, the right atrium would have moredeoxygenated blood.

The inferiorvena cava and the superior vena cava would bring back little bit of oxygenatedblood from many parts in the human body. In the lowest chamber of the heart,the ventricles are found. There are two parts of the lowest chamber of theheart. The two lowest chambers of the heart are called the left ventricle andthe right ventricle. The pumping chambers of the human body heart are the rightventricle and the left ventricle. The right ventricle and the left ventricleboth have a hard wall than the wall of the atria.The pulmonarycirculation for the lungs would have blood pumping to it from the rightventricle. The systemic circulation for the human body would also have bloodpumping to it from the left ventricle.

The right ventricle has a hard wall butthe left ventricle has a harder wall than the right ventricle. The reason whythe left ventricle has a harder wall than the right ventricle is because theblood is pumped harder to every part of an individual’s body by the leftventricle.There are fourvalves in the heart and the bicuspid valve is another type of valve.

In themiddle of the left ventricle and the left atrium, the bicuspid valve is found.From the left atrium to the left ventricle, the bicuspid valve would let theblood to only move one way. From the left atrium, the bicuspid valve would opento let the oxygen-rich blood to go into the left ventricle. In the right atriumof the human heart, the superior vena cava is a vein that would get moredeoxygenated blood from the top of the human body and would empty it in theright atrium. The veinsexcept for the lungs have gone back to the heart join as the superior vena cavais part of the two key paths and so it would take the veins to the right atriumof the heart. The deoxygenated blood from the lowest part of the human body hasbeen gained by the vein which is the inferior vena cava and has been emptied inthe right atrium of the heart. Through the abdomen, the inferior vena cava is avery big vein. The blood of the gonadal veins, phrenic veins, renal veins,hepatic veins and the lumbar veins are all collected by the inferior vena cava.

From the lungs, the pulmonary vein would carry oxygenated blood and would carrythem to the left atrium of the human heart. From the human body heart, thepulmonary artery would carry deoxygenated blood and would take them back to thelungs. The artery that only carry deoxygenated blood is called the pulmonaryartery.

The rightbranch of the pulmonary artery is called the right pulmonary artery. The rightpulmonary artery has a harder and a longer artery than the left pulmonaryartery. The right pulmonary artery would move down the root with a quick speedto the right lung. Two separated arteries are separated from the right lung.The right pulmonary artery normally gives blood to the right lung.One of the lungright lobes would have little arteries that carries blood to them.

The leftbranch of the pulmonary artery is called the left pulmonary artery. The leftpulmonary artery would move down the root with a quick speed to the left lung.Two separated arteries are separated from the left lung. The left pulmonaryartery normally gives blood to the left lung. One of the left lung lobes wouldhave little arteries that carries blood to them. The arterioleshas a thinner wall than the arteries. By changing the size, the arterioleswould control the blood that is given out. Arterioles are responsible forcontrolling the way blood is moving to the capillaries.

The arterioles wouldcontain a large percentage of the smooth muscles, it is really strong and itwould have a hard wall. By joining the arterioles and the venules, thecapillaries would make a network that would join the veins and arteries.Capillaries arevery narrow and are little blood vessels. The capillaries are important as itwould let important nutrients that are needed by the individual’s body tospread and would let the oxygen to spread too.

The red blood cells will only beallowed to go into the capillaries as they are really little.by the tiny wallof the capillaries, nutrients, carbon dioxide, oxygen and waste are all swappedover. In microcirculation the capillaries has a really important part. Microcirculationgives out through the circulation of the blood from the human body heart to thearteries, to the venules, to the little arterioles, to the veins, to thecapillaries and then it would go back to the heart. The deoxygenated blood aretaken back to the heart by the veins.

The veins would have a big size and wouldhave thinner walls than the walls of the arteries. The blood would move slowlywhen the blood reaches the veins and the blood pressure decreases by turninglow. The blood hasbeen squeezed and has been taken back to the human body heart by contractingthe muscles and pushing the thinner walls in. The veins are below the skin andare close to the surface. There are little vessels that are separated by theveins. These little vessels are called venules. The venules rises when itreaches the capillary network.

In the human body there are little veins whichare called venules. By the capillaries and the arterioles, the venules wouldget more blood from the arteries. The vena cavaand the larger veins would have blood that would be carried to them when thevenules are separated into bigger veins. The blood is carried from the superiorvena cava and the inferior vena cava to the right atrium of the heart from thevena cava and the human body. The tissues and the human body are provided withoxygen and nutrients through the bloodstream by the cardiovascular system.

Thewaste products are taken away by this body system. The cell bodies are givennutrients from the capillaries, which would then collect cellular wastes. Thewaste products from the tissues are carried by the circulatory system to theliver and the kidney and would then bring back the carbon dioxide from thetissue to the lungs. Carbon dioxide,heat and nitrogen are the products the waste is made up of and from there it iscarried in the veins to other body system for it to be taken away. When aperson exhales the human body would generally take out carbon dioxide.

Ammonia,utric acid and urea is the shape of nitrogenous waste and is taken away by thekidneys like urine. In order to keep a constant temperature, the body wouldthen bring out heat from the skin. The supply ofheat in the human body is made by this body system to be able to keep thermalequilibrium during exercise. The human body temperature is controlled by thecardiovascular system.

When the human body is too hot, it takes away a lot ofheat. Whereas, when the body is too cold it puts more blood to the organs and thewhole human body. At 37°C the human enzymes would normally work better at thistemperature. The demand ofoxygen rises whilst exercising. Oxygen would be carried by the blood to eachpart of the human body which needs it. Also, the metabolic waste from to cellswould be carried to the parts that have been taken away. By red blood cells,oxygen is carried in the blood.

Carbon dioxide and oxygen are carried by redblood cells.Every body cellis given oxygen that is collected from red blood cells which is in the lungs ofthe human body. The carbon dioxide is carried then taken back to the lungs bythe red blood cells after carried the oxygen to the body cells. When anindividual exhales, this is the place where it is taken away from the body. Thewhite blood cells and anti-bodies are carried and is in the blood.

Bacteria andviruses will be stopped if white blood cells and anti-bodies are present.Germs would befought by the white blood cells. Those germs would be attacked by the whiteblood cells so it could protect the body from illnesses and diseases. Morewhite blood cells will be made when an individual has got an infection so itcould fight the infection. When an antigen is seen, proteins are made by thebody. Towards the human body antigens are harmful substances.

Bacteria,chemicals, parasites, fungi and viruses are examples of harmful substances. When anindividual is cut, it is the platelets job to help during the blotting process.Death can easily happen if a blood vessel was cut and a lot of blood would belost by the cardiovascular if it is not stopped. This is the reason why theblood loss from the cardiovascular system should be stopped so death does nothappen.

Fluid would be provided by the blood for the cells and is a way whenmany supplies are carried to and from the cells.There are fourimportant parts that the blood would contain. The four important parts are thewhite blood cells (leucocytes), plasma, platelets and red blood cells(erythrocytes). Distribution, protection and regulation are the main jobs ofthe blood in the human body. One way of supporting the human body, is that theblood would control the temperature by distributing and taking in heat.

Towardsthe liver and the body cells, maintained nutrients are carried from the intestines.The kidney is the place where the waste products from the tissues are carriedto. Carried into the blood are white blood cells, medicines, hormones andantibodies.