Schizophrenia: is described as the loss of contactwith reality. People with this diagnosis thinking and speech become disorganizedrambling and fragmented. They go from randomly picking up one train of thought andswitch to another, and then another.  Theycan also suffer a breakdown in selective attention losing ability to focus onone thing while filtering others out. In extreme cases speech may become so brokenthat it becomes a string of meaningless words.

The also have delusions, falsebeliefs not based on reality, delusions of granger like “I’m the queen of England”.They experience paranoia making them believe their thoughts and actions arebeing controlled by an outside force, that their being spied on, followed, orfeeling like they are infested with bugs. They can have sensory experienceslike hallucinations.

Where the person sees or hears something that isn’t there,and do not have the ability to understand what is real and what is not. As wellas auditory hallucinations, and the voices are often abusive. They cannot sortout whether the voices in their minds are internal and self made or externaland made by others. They experience disorganized, abnormal behavior and emotions.

Like laughing when remembering a loved ones’ death, or crying while others arelaughing, acting like a goofy child one minute, then becoming unpredictablyangry or agitated the next. Movements can become inappropriate and compulsive likerocking back and fourth, or remaining motionless for hours. People with schizophreniabecome very socially withdrawn, have deterioration in personal hygiene, andoversleep or have insomnia. Bipolardisorder: also knownas manic depression is a condition that manifest in the brain and is defined byextreme mood swings of mania and depression. During a manic episode someonewith bipolar disorder typically has lost of energy, makes risky decisions, feeleuphoric, and are very productive. Then during depressive episode, they feel depressed,constantly worried, hopeless, lose interest or pleasure in normal activities, andoften have suicidal tendencies. It can also be accompanied by psychosis, abreak from reality.

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They can think they are famous, a billionaire, or havesuper powers. Going suddenly from one idea to the next, have an inflated selfimage, loud speech, excessive spending far beyond their means, hyper sexuality,Increased energy with a decreased need for sleep, and have issues withsubstance abuse. The episodes typically last a few weeks but can be shorterlived.  It can be described as one daynot being able to get out of bed. Then the next be up loving life and awake for24hours. The mood swings can affect your career, friendships, relationships,sleep, energy, activity, judgment, and the ability to think clearly. But manypeople with bipolar 1 can live normal lives. Posttraumaticstress disorder (PTSD):Happens when a memory of a past traumatic event like war or a sexual assaultcauses continuing mental and physical distress.

The main symptoms are psychologicalones the person may re-experience their trauma through nightmares, flashbacks,severe anxiety, and intrusive thoughts about the event. They can lead to behavioralchanges as well. Someone with PTSD may start to avoid environments andsituations that remind them of the trauma and feel a sense of hyper vigilance.

Where they are constantly on guard for danger, or hyper arousal, where theyhave an exaggerated startle response to the smallest triggers. This can lead totrouble sleeping, irritability, anger outburst, aggressive behavior, troubleconcentrating, and overwhelming guilt or shame. It can have a negative changein someone’s thinking or mood.

They can have negative thought about themselves orother people, hopelessness, have difficulty maintaining close relationships,feel detached from their family and friends, lack of interest in activitiesthey once enjoyed, and feeling emotionally numb. PTSD may increase the risk ofother mental health problems like issues with drug or alcohol abuse as well assuicidal thoughts and actions.