Ruskin, (2004) describe physical educationas one type of education that teach the function of physical and motorobjective as well as cognitive, emotional and social objective.
All over theyears, people keep develop the physical education as well as people abilitiessuch as strength, and fitness. This thing develops in many field of physicaleducation such as individual level (a person ability, strength and fitness).Besides that, it also develops in the organization level (such as school andarmy).
Many research from different fields, representing many approach. Theyclaimed that physical activity had proven to be significant factor in shapingthe world of individual, group and communities. By time goes by, people keep ondiscovering the important inside the physical activity and they had confirmedthat, physical activity is very necessary to be a part of daily routine inlife. In medical and health aspect, physical activity can give health benefitsuch as prevention of heart disease and blood clots (Harvard School of PublicHealth, 2007; Ross, 1995). Besides that, it also gives a good impact inindividual motor abilities (Lidor,2004. Other study has highlighted thepsychological benefits of physical activity, such as the ability to sustainpressure to cope with anxiety, and increasing self-confidence (Netz, 2008). Accordingto (Lidor, 2004) physical activity generally refers to movement or action thatboost and enhance people health. Exercise is a part of physical activity thatshould be planned and structured for example, lifting weights, taking anaerobics class and running.
Physical activity is good for many parts of thebody. 2.3 Involvement in physical activity(running activity) Lee,T. H., & Shen, Y. L.
(2013) defined involvement as an unobservable state ofmotivation, arousal or interest towards a physical activity or associatedproduct. It was evoked by a particular stimulus or situation and had drivenproperties. In short, involvement referred to how we think about our physicalactivity, and it is the effect on our behaviour as well.
Running is one of thebest exercise that people do to maintain their health nowadays. In other studyshowed that those who are practice running on daily life will had a 3.2 yearslonger life expectancy, compared with those who are not running. (Kim,2011).
Itis assumed that the ancestor of mankind creates the ability to run for longdistances about 2.6 million years ago, probably in order to hunt animals. Bytime passed by, this running activity are evolved and develop, people makerunning as a part of competitive religious festivals in various areas. (Kim,2011). But, nowadays, running activities become more developed, people usedjogging and running to maintain their fitness as well as their health duringtheir free time or become part of their life to be a professional athlete. Inorder to promote healthy lifestyle, some organizer organize running event andput a valuable prize to encourage people participate in the activities. Yeoman,I., Robertson, M.
, Ali-Knight, J., Drummond, S., & McMahon-Beattie, (2012).There are many type of running activity that people involve. One of the mostpopular type of the running races are the sprints or the races with a shortrunning distance such as 100m ,200 meter and 400-meter race.
Besides that,there is also middle distance running race such as 800 meter and last categoryof running is long distance running. Long distance races have severaldisciplines and those are the 3,000-meter race, the 5,000-meter race and the10,000-meter race. One of the similarities that long distance races have withthe middle distance races is that strength is not that important factor.
Moreimportant are endurance and the tactics. Marathon can also be included in thistype of races. The official distance of the marathon is 42.195 kilometres or26.219 miles and it is often considered to be the most difficult running races.In this study the researcher only focus on long distance running activity.
Accordingto (James H O’Keefe, Peter Schnohr, Carl J Lavie, 2013) They found that longdistance running, as compared with the non-Runnings, had a remarkable 44% lowerrisk of mortality during follow-up for both men and women. The age-adjustedincrease in survival was about 6?years in both genders. The trends of runningactivity or joining running event were changing in develop countries as peopletry to participate for the sake of their healthiness and leisure. People thathave income below than RM1000 are the highest participants in running events asthe fee are affordable by everyone, Estabrooks, P. A.
, Lee, R. E., , N. C. (2003). Nowadays, with the use of the internet, people caneasily access and know where are the place that organize the running event.Nowadays the running activity become the must activity by the most of Malaysiacitizen (Mahmood, 2011).
Inaddition, researcher found that, running activity become more supportive as itcomes to fundraising challenge. In a series of five experiments, ChristopherOlivola of Carnegia Mellon University discovered that people are attracted tocontribute more when the experience is painful and labour-intensive. Fogelholm,M. (2010).
The idea of suffering for a cause they care about can help maketheir support more meaningful. This is why running activities, such as 5000meters run, have consistently drawn in participants, Olivola, C. Y., & Shafir, E.
(2013). 2.4 MOTIVATIONS TO PARTICIPATE INPHYSICAL ACTIVITY Accordingto Whaley and Schrider (2005), how people assume themselves based on past experiencesand current situations will definitely influence their physical activitychoices. Every year, the participant in running activity increase dramatically,it is almost 100,000 participants in 2010 from previous year (RunningUSA,2011).
Mostly, the research about the marathon were using quantitativemethod to examine motivation and satisfaction of the marathon event. Someprevious research had reveal that, people mostly involved in running activitybecause of personal accomplishment, health and fitness, social influence, andstress relief (Filo, Funk, & O’Brein, 2011; Scott and Solomon 2003; Ogles& masters, 2000). In another study, there are participants younger than 20years old were more likely to be motivated by health pressure and ill-healthavoidance, whereas those 20 years old and greater were more likely to bemotivated by affiliation, (Ingledew& Sullivan,2012). 2.5 MOTIVATIONFOR PARTICIPATION AMONG GENDER Accordingto (Ingledew & Sullivan, 2012), sex differences motivation forparticipating running activity showed that, they had women were more tendencytowards weight management, while man was more tendency towards challenge andappearance aspects. (Johns Gard, 2012) were doing the surveyed and found that65% men and 48% woman all over the world involved in marathon because ofphysical fitness, mood control, and self-concept.
In other study, Giles-Corti, B., & Donovan, R. J.(2002) perceptions of social and physical environmental supports werepositively associated with physical activity and walking behaviour, especiallyat the neighbourhood level. Increasing awareness of environmental supports,social comparison, and safety issues as well as of the importance of usingopportunities for physical activity at the neighbourhood level may be aneffective strategy for future community-based interventions.
According to (Ingledew& Sullivan, 2012) investigated sex differences in motivation participatingin marathon event in the adult population, revealing women were found to bemore motivated by weight management, whereas men were motivated by thechallenge and appearance aspects. (Johns Gard, 2012) surveyed 65% men and 48%woman all over the world do marathonbecause physical fitness, mood control, and self-concept. But there isdifferent perspective by Kesterson, K. (2013). Based on research study byGiles-Corti, B., & Donovan, R. J.
(2002), perceptions of social andphysical environmental supports were positively associated with physicalactivity. Compared to previous study by Ewert, Gilbertson, Luo and Voight (2013)said, compared to males, females reported higher in social motives. Beggset al. (2004) women were likely to participate in intramural sports forintellectual satisfaction. This is because the female is more likely to takeopportunities to socialize, being entertained and feeling comfortable withtheir friend and families during the program. In other study, by Gathright etal . (2007) males were more likely to come alone or in groups compared tofemales.
The results are consistent with previous study reported, femaleathletes and practitioners being most motivated by social factor (Pacheco, SotoMas, Olivarez& Avilia, 2012). previous research as discussed by Forrester(1997), he concluded that students were much more motivated bycompetency/mastery and social factors more so than intellectual orstimulus/avoidance factors. Both genders agreed that they gained new knowledgeand ideas when they participated in this program. 2.6 Maslow’shierarchy of needs Thepsychologist Abraham Maslow established a theory that proposes we, humans, aremotivated to satisfy five basic requirements. These requirements are organizedin a hierarchy. Maslow proposes that we look for satisfy the bottom level of necessity.Once this is done, we look for satisfy each upper level of necessity until wehave satisfied all five requirements.
While modern research shows someshortcomings with this theory, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory remains animportant and simple motivation tool for managers to understand and apply. The Hierarchy of Needs is as follows: PhysiologicalNeeds (basic issues of survival such as salary and stable employment), SecurityNeeds (stable physical and emotional environment issues such as benefits,pension, safe work environment, and fair work practices), “Belongingness” Needs(social acceptance issues such as friendship or cooperation on the job), Esteem Needs (positive self-image and respectand recognition issues such as job titles, nice work spaces, and prestigiousjob assignments.), Self-ActualizationNeeds (achievement issues such as workplace autonomy, challenging work, andsubject matter expert status on the job) Although we, human is motivated to satisfythis five basic needs, many of decision made by individual usually areinfluence by intrinsic and extrinsic factor that affect the decision.Self-determination theory is the example that briefly discuss about the realthings happen that encourage people to do everything including physicalactivity. 2.7 Self-DeterminationTheory Onetheoretical framework that has been used over the past three decades inresearch studies involving analyses of variability in sport and exerciseparticipation is self-determination theory (Deci, 1980; Deci & Ryan, 1985;1987; 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000).
The current study used self-determinationtheory for its conceptual foundation, because the focus of this investigationwas on examining the various relationships among gender, participation, andexperience on the motivation levels. Self-determination theory is a veryeffective framework to consider different levels of motivation for activityparticipation. Understanding the effective and complicated psychologicalprocess of motivation is important to knowing human behaviour, especially insport and exercise settings (Roberts, 2001). A fundamental presumption ofself-determination theory is that individuals are more likely to want toparticipate in sports and physical activities when individuals are acting outof their own decision-making (Bryan & Solmon, 2007). When individuals areself-determined to do something, rather than being forced to do it, individualswill be more willing to participate, and will shift from lower degrees tohigher degrees of self-determination (Bryan & Solmon, 2007). Self-determination theory can helpevaluate each consequence of various forms of motivation in sport and exercisesettings.
Wehmeyer, Baker, Blumber, and Harrison (2004) noted thatself-determination demonstrates the level to which a social context giveschances for sport participants to make selections and utilize control over thenature of their experiences. A primary focal point of self-determination theoryhas been to conceptualize human motivation along a continuum, such as learning,satisfaction, personal experience, and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Deciand Ryan have also noted that some of the behavioral restrictions that vary inlevels of self-determination have been analysed. According toself-determination theory, people have shared basic psychological needs, suchas competence, autonomy, and relatedness, that should be met in a physicalactivity context (Deci & Ryan, 1991).
Several studies (e.g., Hagger, Chatzisarantis,& Harris, 2006; Vallerand, 1997) revealed that the need for autonomy hasbeen explained as an individual’s endeavour to decide his or her own direction,and the need for competence has been expressed as an individual’s attempt toexperience consequence.
In addition, the need for relatedness was described asan individual’s desire to have satisfying and consistent involvement withothers. Overall, self-determination theory posits that there is three levels ofmotivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation)which represent the differentiated types of self-determination. The most commonself-determination level is intrinsic motivation, and the least commonself-determination level is amotivation (Vallerand, 1997). Several studies haveinvestigated patterns of motivation, using the self-determination theory in thefield of physical activity research and sport context.
Some of these studieshave examined participation in physical education and sport for youth(Ntoumanis, 2001), physical activity (Wang & Biddle, 2001), and adultparticipation in sport (Vlachopoulos, Karageorhgis, & Terry, 2000).According to Thøgersen-Ntoumani and Ntoumanis (2006), intrinsic motivation to engagein sport and exercise activities has been associated with a variety ofbeneficial behaviors, in contrast to the concept of amotivation. Previousresearch in physical activity and other contexts has demonstrated thatsatisfied motivational results, such as behavioral persistence, task involvement,enhanced psychological well-being and quality of life, are positivelyassociated with more self-governing regulations, and/or are negatively linkedto more self-restraint regulations (Reinboth, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2004). Anumber of scholars have studied exercise participation with intrinsicregulations, and found that self-determination is positively related to futureintentions to exercise in young and adult participants in both exercise andleisure contexts (Rose, Parfitt, & Williams, 2005) and physical educationcontexts (e.g.
, Ntoumanis, 2005; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2003). Thethree basic psychological needs are very important for stimulating higherlevels of motivation, and the satisfaction of competence is especially crucialin explaining higher levels of motivation.