REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREThere are many issues concerning students in University ofCebu and Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue in the usage of Social Media.On one hand, theremay be benefits for students  who  use Social Media properly and appropriately.Other research suggests that there are clear risks involved when studentsbecome too consumed with the Internet and social networking websites.

Thisresearch review is aimed at finding the effects of social media on students’ academicperformance.Therefore, the literature review discusses the relevant researchthat is useful to the objectives of this research project.Social media employs mobile and web basedtechnology to create highly interactive platforms via which individuals andcommunity share, co-create, discuss and modifies user-generated content (Kietzmannn,2012). Social media can increase student learning through student interactions,challenges arise when social media are incorporated into an academic course. It is stated that the social activity sharing  tools such  as  Facebook and Twitter used by especially theyoungsters more in-tensely have created an internal obstacle in fulfillingtheir responsibilities by negatively affecting the social, familial relationsand health (Esen, 2010).A study cited by Boyd & Ellison(2007) define social  network sitesas  web-based services that  allow individuals to construct profiles,display user connections, and search and traverse within that list ofconnections.

A social media is an online service or platforms that focus onfacilitating the building of social network among people who share interest,activities and background on real life connections. It is a website that allowsusers to share information within a selected group.Social Networking Sites (SNS) havebeen popular since the year 2002 and have attracted and fascinated tens ofmillions of Internet users (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). The idea behind most ofthis phenomenon, as with many websites, is to help people feel sociallyconnected and part of a community, even though they may be sitting home aloneat their computer (Coyle & Vaughn, 2008). Participants may connect withother people they know through school, work, or an organization, or they maymeet complete strangers from all over the world (Coyle & Vaughn, 2008).They do this by searching for people and adding them as “friends” so that theymay share information with them and other networks that those people may  be a  part of (Boyd  Ellison,  2007).  Being “friends” in the  SNS world simplymeans that two profiles have been linked together (Tufekci, 2008). This, inturn, expands a person’s network greatly, so that they may meet and shareinformation with even more members (Coyle & Vaughn, 2008).

Though  many arguments  can  be made  about  the possible  risks  of adolescent  social networking, itis important to point out the benefits of these websites as well. Many schoolshave  started  to use  these  sites to promote  education,  keep students  up  to date  with assignments, and offerhelp to those in need (Boyd, 2007). In general, the Internet and socialnetworking sites can be a positive influence on adolescents. Social networkingsites 25  provide an outlet for teens toexpress themselves in their own unique ways (Boyd, 2007). In addition, theyserve both as a meeting place for teens to interact with other like-mindedpeople and as showplaces for a teen’s artistic and musical abilities (Boyd,2007). High school students use these sitesas tools to obtain information and resources for graduation preparation andfuture planning. For example, students applying for college visit profiles ofthat college’s students to view pictures and read blogs of past students todetermine whether the college would be a good fit (Boyd & Ellison, 2007).

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It has been observed in recent times that students haveunlimited access to the internet as well as the social media. Students connectwith computer to send and receive information’s anywhere on the globe. The manufacturingand distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated thesituation, as students no longer need to visit a cybercafé before they  and receive  messages.  Some school  are  so equipped  that  there is  internet connection made  available within the school premises as wellas in the library. Online Wikipedia and blogs are the main resource centers for students as attention have beenshifted  from  making research  in  the library  to  overall dependence  on  theses social platforms.

It is a common thing to see a student reading in thelibrary and putting the books aside on hearing the sound of a ping on thephone.Boyd & Ellison (2007) pointed outthat the U.S. Congress has proposed legislation to ban youth from accessingsocial networking websites in schools and libraries. When the highly developednations take stands over the use of social networking websites and cannot allowthese social networking websites for countrymen, youth, students and workingpeople, then the need is felt to see into that either social networkingwebsites adversely effects students  ornot.Social media are also emerging as online year book forprivate and public use. It allows anyone from the general public to registerand connect to others.

It allows participant the opportunity for just in timelearning and engagement and prescribed curriculum. Jerkins (2006)described  it as participatory culture.It creates space for  learners  which James (2004) suggest affinity space anddispersion of expertise and relatedness for learning.Though there have been many social, economic, andenvironmental factors that have added to the pressure of university students inthe past ten years, the drop-out rate for students is still  a major  national  problem (Bowen, 2008).  Current  statistics show that  university students inNigeria are under increased pressure due to higher academic standards in othercountries,  and  it has  become  more important  than  ever for  educators  to encourage graduation and further education (Bowen, 2008). However, withmore and more students being preoccupied with social media networks andtechnological social lives, how will this affect their studies? It is estimatedthat even those students who do graduate high school, one out of three does nothave possess the knowledge and skills that would lead him or her to the nextlevel, such as college or an advanced trade school (Bowen, 2008) The top academic areas that many school professionals are concernedabout are English (ELA) and advanced literacy (Williams, 2008).

The currentgenerations of teens live in a fast-paced technological world with manydifferent types of communication happening all at the same time. For example,he or she may be on the computer on a SNS, while also talking on the phone,sending instant messages to a friend, and emailing someone else all at the sametime (Williams, 2008). While there may be some advantages to this, such as theteen learning how to type faster and multi-task many things at once, there mayalso be a breakdown in much of that communication (Williams, 2008).  The social  media  engages students  and  have to  be  examined as  entrepreneurs  of understanding. The medium of internet ismarketing with increase in its programs.

The interactive character of onlineconditions has extended with social networking. Hooking up through socialnetworking began as being a niche activity, though time it’s a phenomenon. Theweb sites are employed in many ways like developing metropolitan areas,speaking, blogging etc. Additionally different institutions even nowadays aredeveloping groups on several Websites (Saba Mehmood 2013).  According toKhan U (2009), social media users often time experience poor performanceacademically.

Similarly, Englander, Terregrossa & Wang (2010) posit thatsocial media is negatively associated with academic performance of student andis a lot more momentous than its advantages. Internet addiction consequentlygave rise in internet usage within the last couple of decades. Nalwa &Anand (2003).recommended that addicted users prefer using internet setting backtheir personal and professional responsibilities which ultimately leads to pooracademic performance. In the same vein, Karpinski (2009) pointed out thatsocial media users devoted lesser time to their studies in comparison tononusers did and subsequently had lower GPAs. Karpinski & Duberstein (2009).Alsomentioned that among various  uniquedistractions  of  every single generation,  Social  media remains  a major distraction ofcurrent generation. One of thereason that the students use Social Media according Peter and Schouten(2006)stated that social  media networksand  Internet usage,  social networking sites like Facebook andMySpace have become so popular that many university students will get anaccount even if they do not want.

This shows that joining a SNS signifies morethan just going on a website; it is way of “fitting  in”  with peers, just like  many other  types of  groups  in high  school  (Peter, Schouten, & Valkenburg, 2006). Infact, SNS may be predictors of self-esteem and well-being  in students,  and  they have  become  a fundamental  role  in student’s  life  (Peter, Schouten, & Valkenburg, 2006). Astudent stated in a research study by Dr. Danah Boyd at Berkeley University:”If you’re not on MySpace, you don’t exist” (Boyd, 2007). Social medianetworks, as well as other new forms of communication technology, are also aconcern to many school professionals because of the level of distraction theycreate within the school (Greenfield & Subrahmanyam, 2008). Even thoughmany schools have created many strict rules that forbid the use of handheldtechnology during school activities or that block certain social networkingwebsites, many students are still able to connect during lecture    hours as they  please  (Greenfield  Subrahmanyam,  2008).

 This  has caused distractions  during instruction  time  and has  had  a negative  impact  on the  learning environment.  On theinternet, students engage in a variety of activities some of which may bepotentially addictive.Kuss and Griffiths (2011). The mass appeal of socialmedia on the internet could be a cause for concern, particularly when attendingto the gradually increasing amount of time students spend online.Undergraduates spend more time on Facebook, Twitter and other social mediathrough smartphones that are now in abundance among these youths. Many studentcannot go for two-three hours without checking and updating their profiles onthese social networks even at the detriment of other activities such aseducational and career pursuit.

(Morahan- Martin and Schumacher, 2000) explainsocial media addiction as the excessive use of the internet and the failure tocontrol this usage which seriously harms a person’s life. Manyconcerned  parents have  expressed grave  concern that they could hardly  get theattention of  their children  and wards, as they  seem  to have been carried away by  thefascinating world of social networks. Some youths are such social freaks thatthey have now carved out for themselves a world of fantasy and illusion fordetached from reality. Bello (2012) of the Sunday Observer observes that if thedangerous trend of social media network “obsession” if left unchecked couldfurther affect an already collapsing education system in Nigeria. The reasonstudents are performing poorly in school these days might not be farfetched.While poor quality of lecturers can quickly take the blame, one might thinkharder if the phrase “Facebook frenzy” has not been heard of.

It is a commonsight to see a  youth chatting insensitive and highly organized  placeslike church, mosque and lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even asthey are walking along the high way, they keep chatting. Attention  has beenshifted  from visible  to invisible friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected inthe process.           InOlubiyi (2012), the author observed that the bone of contention of the socialmedia is the obsessive attitude of Nigerian youths towards its use. He pointedout that students waste their time through idle chats and other immoral acts.Students are so engrossed in the social media networks  that they are almost  24 hours  online. Even in classrooms and  lecture theatres, it  has been observed that some  students arealways  busy pinging, 2going orFacebooking, while lectures are on. The result is that quality time that oughtto be spent on academic research and other productive networking is lost.

The mostimportant reason for this is that social media is put on the second plan for along time, in other words, overuse of the responsibilities. While constantsocial media thinking, social media anxiety and unhappiness, non-self-controlbehaviors are defined as social media cognitive disorders; it is possible todefine behavioral disorders such as not being able to control the duration ofsocial media usage, refusing to socialize when experiencing a problem, andfailing to fulfill responsibilities in social, academic, familial andprofessional relations (Keser- Özcan and Buzlu, 2007).According toKuppuswamy and Shankar (2010) social network websites grab attention of thestudents and then diverts it towards non-educational and inappropriate actionsincluding useless chatting.  Based on theabove statement we can say that  socialnetworking sites may badly affect the academic life and learning experiences ofthe student. Trusov, Bucklin, and Pauwels (2009) noted that the Internet is nodoubt evolution of technology but specifically social networks are extremelyunsafe for teenagers, social networks become hugely common and well-known inpast few years           Socialmedia can also be a challenging instructional strategy to incorporate becauseit attempts to balance the authority of the educator with the activeparticipation of the students. Collaboration through social media supports moreof a constructivist approach to learning, where students and educators can worktogether to co-create understanding of a particular topic, rather than anapproach that emphasizes individual contributions (Stevens, 2009). As a result,students and educators become equalparticipants in the knowledge sharingprocess.

Though this seems beneficial for creating and disseminating knowledge,socialmedia can also become a privacy concern (i.e. cyber-plagiarism) as wellas an outlet for abuse and cyber-bullying (Chen & Bryer,2012; Frye et al.,2010; Jackson, 2011; Smailes & Gannon-Leary, 2011). This suggests thatestablishing standards for socialmedia use should include behavior and attitudeguidelines similar to those enforced in the classroom.The assumption that students arefamiliar with and agreeable to using certain types of social media can causeeducators to inadvertently fail to provide the resources or encouragementnecessary to support student usage and learning (Cole, 2009; Väljataga &Fiedler, 2009). Arnold and Paulus (2010) found that even when social media isused for aneducational purpose, students incorporate the technology into theirlives in a way that may differ from the intentions of the courseinstructor.

Forexample, off-topic or non-academic discussions occur on social media because ofits primary design as a socialnetworking tool (Lin et al., 2013). Further, as astudent’s age increases, the frequency of off-topic discussions also increases(Linet al., 2013).

This indicates that while social media may encourage broaderdiscussions of course content, older students mayspend more time than youngerstudents engaging in unrelated discussions. Social media can also negativelyaffect student GPA aswell as the amount of time students spend preparing forclass (Annetta et al., 2009). One explanation for this impactis that socialmedia provides too much stimulation and therefore can distract students fromcompleting their coursework (Hurt etal., 2012; Patera et al., 2008). Anotherreason for this may be that students who spend more time on social media mayhave difficulty balancing their online activities and their academicpreparation.

          In a research conducted by Kuppuswamyand Shankar (2010) explore the effects of social networking websites and itsimpact on academic life and learning experiences of students.  As Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010)explained  that the social networks  grabs the total attention  and concentrationof the students and diverts it towards non educational, unethical andinappropriate actions such as useless chatting, time killing by randomsearching and not doing their jobs. Students and teenagers mostly use socialnetworks for time killing and sake of enjoyment but  it has been  analyzed that internet use for  educationpurpose and any  appropriate taskincluding  online tutorials, online  lectures and education  material downloading  is very good but use  of internet for  only social network is  very useless perhapsdangerous.