The aim of this book report is to understand why the United States of America has been facing political unrest for a long period of time that has caused the loss of lives of most of its citizens as well as poor implementation of good development strategies for the states.
In the year 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed hence led to the fall of power of the United States of America thus was left with the option of reshaping the state once again. After the collapse, the state was viewed with hostility and was regarded as useless .The reason why the state fell was that the presidents who had been appointed to head the state did not implement proper strategies that would be carried out within that would enhance proper decision making processes that would be used to overcome the problems of the state. Body This book is about Zbigniew Brzezinski who was formerly the president of Jimmy Catters National Security Advisor. Currently he is the counselor and trustee at the center for strategic and National studies, a professor of the American foreign policy at school of Advanced International studies at Johns Hopkins University.In his book he analyzes the characteristics and performance of three presidents in America: George H. W.
Bush, William J. Clinton and George W. Bush. Zbigniew Brzezinski states in his book that the presidents were the first leaders during the soviet empire and cold war. Although the leaders had been elected did not leave to the expectations of their citizens since they did not receive international blessings therefore the state faced with problems due to poor decision making processes (Brzezinski, Z . 34 p. ) According to Zbigniew Brzezinski he stated that even though George H. W.
Bush was the most experienced leader during that time, he did not have a vision for the state since he choose to implement a traditional policy in nontraditional environment that was not useful to the state thus lead to chaotic situations within the country . He was practitioner of politics and a diplomat in the untraditional age and valued the implementation of traditional stability within the country.The greatest limitations of the president were that he did not perform as was expected of them. For instance he did not come up with a global architectural innovation like the one that was been followed during the world war II that involved the Russian, china and other emerging powers that would have brought change and development into the country.
The other problem with the president was that he relied on convectional great power for diplomacy to maintain his position, but did not bring about any changes to the state.Later on he established a military base in Saudi Arabia and developed sanctions against Iraq this lead to Iraq’s Al-Qaida anger that lead to conflicts between the two countries. Bill Clinton is another leader that is analyzed in the book by Zbigniew Brzezinski . He was leader who did not have a strategic plan of how to carry out his activities such as utilizing the American power appropriately to enhance its stability and growth.Was an optimistic person who embraced the issue of globalization into the country, since it was known to provide a convenient formula for melding domestic and foreign policies into one single theme therefore he did not take into account a disciplined foreign policy strategy into the country.
The implementation of the globalizations was marred by frequent protest because it led to the erosion of the United States legitimacy and establishment of a populist’s movement that was equally criticized through Seattle protest 1999 that resulted to the shutting down of the World Trade Organization meeting.He was also criticized since he encouraged his citizens to evade payment of taxes or to adhere to the international treaties and later on denounced the rules of the land that brought about disagreements between the countries that did business with it (Brzezinski, Z. 234 p). George W. Bush had a strong vision for the state although he did not have the knowledge of the global complexities and temperate dogmatic formulation that existed within the country. The major challenges the American foreign policy makers will face in the next twenty yearsThe great challenge that will occur will be that to the threat of terrorism. There have been frequent report attacks to the state. It had been noted that the American had waged war against the Iraq that brought about hundreds of deaths to the country and increased cost of maintaining the affairs of the country.
Due to the war the Americans morality level declined, its legitimacy was questioned while its creditability that had been bestowed to it was shattered since much causalities were reported during the war period between the two countries.The other challenge that will be faced by the state is that of the absence of any institutional mechanism that will involve the executive and legislative branches of government . According to Zbigniew Brzezinski he stated that the American state did not have a good organizational structure that would outline how the activities of the state would be implemented hence the reason why leadership problems arose in the country. The lobby groups did not play a useful role to the community this because terrorism attacks were not prevented in any way by them.The other challenge that the state will encounter is that of competition.
Competition is regarded as a factor that brings about changes within a country such as expanded markets, more stable governments, international and multinational agreements between countries that are based on mutual interests. United States of America may face this challenge because it has had leaders who have not been development conscience hence slow development programs within the country.The war that existed between Iraq and America did destroy the reputation of the country hence it would take time before it embarks on serious development within the country. United States of America has also been facing the challenge of energy. It is estimated that the population of the country will increase from 8 to 10 billion people therefore they will need to be supplied with energy that is commensurate with the number of people that increase with time.
The policy initiatives that would be implemented by the state to deal with the challengesAccording to Zbigniew Brzezinski he stated that three priorities would be most important to deal with the crises that the state has been facing they include; the reshaping of power relationships toward a more cooperative system, containing civil wars, preventing terrorism and preventing the use of proliferation weapons of mass destruction and the dealing with the rising cases of global inequality and having at the same time spreading the ecological crisis (Brzezinski, Z. 234 p).In order for the American to restore the lost glory that it had it should exercise virtues such as: integrity, dignity and liberty among the nations so as to overcome the leadership problems it has been facing The lobby laws should have been established in order to overcome their occurrences in the future as it would have led to more detailed public accountability hence proper management of the states affairs. The state should appoint leaders that can solve problems and those that have a vision on how the operations of states should be so as to avoid conflicts and violence among its member states.The government should establish innovate ways of supplying the state with enough resources to cater for then rising population in that country. The energy levels can be increased through implementing extractive and transportation technologies that can increase the energy levels such a fossil fuels and nuclear power to its citizens.
Analysis and evaluation The book does not give comprehensive advise on what the state men should do, but the author emphasizes on the choice of good leaders who can be in a position to improve on the perform of a country.It state that there cannot be a third chance to deal with the problems of the country unless a review is carried out on how to handle issues within a state at early stage. Conclusion It is therefore important for the citizens of nations to choose leaders that have a vision so that they can bring about development programs within a country . Good leaders can ensure that its citizens are protected from terrorists, they do not succumb to political influence that can hinder development and those that have the interest of its people at heart.