Research Ethics is essential to adhering to ethicalprinciples and protecting the safety and wellness rights of researchparticipants. Then, all human-involved research should be reviewed by ethicalcommittees to ensure that appropriate ethical standards are maintained.The existing research ethics source is the Belmont Reportpublished in 1979.
It is a major work on ethics in healthcare research. Itsmain purpose is to protect subjects and participants in clinical trials orresearch studies. The Belmont Report is written by a panel of experts andproposes three ethical research principles involving human subjects. The threekey ethical principles quoted from Belmont’s report are autonomy, beneficence,and justice.
In general, autonomy can be defined as an individual’s rightto determine the activities they want or not participate. In particular,autonomy requires an individual to understand what they are asking to do,making a reasonable decision about their entry and effect, and making thechoice to freely participate in force. The principle of protecting autonomy isknown as the consent process, in which a researcher provides potential researchparticipants with complete disclosure of the types of research, risks, benefitsand alternatives, and gives a chance to ask before deciding to take any part.Participants are considered as reduced autonomy, based on decreased cognitionssuch as children, cognitive disabilities or mental illness. Other conditionssuch as prisoners or people with severe illnesses are considered vulnerablepopulations. In some cases, children and inmates have certain protections toprotect their autonomy as required by law. Beneficence can be clearly defined is the benefit ofresearch participants.
Profitable principles are behind research efforts tominimize risk to participants and maximize benefits to participants andcommunities. Justice requires careful selection of participants, preventingparticipants from being unfair participants to participate, such as prisonersand organized children. The principle of justice requires those who carry outthe burden of inquiry to benefit from the investigation, and principles thatare often violated by the export of clinical trials to less developedcountries.