10. Serial cables
11. Dc battery
DC motor converts electrical direct current (DC)
energy into mechanical energy.DC motor consists of armature winding and field
winding.Motor that we have selected for the project is 12v rated.DC motors used
in our project for the movement of the project.
There are two general types of dc motor, self
excited dc motors and seperataly excited dc motors.Here we used the self
excited bi-directional permanent magnet dc motor that can moves both directions
permanent magnet dc motor has a permanent magnet as a field winding and
armature winding work as the rotor of the motor.
The dc motor does not have enough torgue to drive a
robot directly by connecting wheels in it.gears are used to increase the torque
of dc motor on the expense of its speed.
Rated load: 0.8kgf.cm
servo motor rotary actuator that can move on specific angle.servo motor
provides precise control of angular and linear motion.It consist of specific
motor that coupled with feedback sensor.
A servomotor is
closed-loop servomechanism that uses position feedback to control its motion
and its final position.The input to its control is a signal representing the
position command for the output shaft.The motor is paired with encoder to
provide position and speed feedback.
Servo used in this
We used the positional
Operating voltage: 4.8v-6.8v
Operating speed: 0.20sec/60degree
Gear type: metal gear
In this project servo
used for precise movment of the object picker (robotic arm).Three sevro motors
used two for 180 degree rotation of the arm and one for 50 degree
rotation.Servo receives the signal from the aurdino digital pin 6,7and 8 and
then rotate the motor according to the signal.
Positive and negative supplies
of the servos are fixed connected through the buck convertor.
Driver IC L298:
Motor driver ic is
basically a current amplifier which takes a low-current signal from the aurdino
and gives out a propotionally higher current signal which can control and drive
a motor.motor driver circuit also known as H-bridge.L298 is H-bridge motor
driver that can control the four motors at a time.with the help of the ic we
can rotate dc motors clockwise and anti-clockwise direction.
All the movement of the
robot controlled by the motor driver Ic l298
DC to DC buck convertor
converts the high voltage DC to low voltage dc.buck convertor receives the 12volts
from the battery and step down into 5volts.There are two buck convertors used
one for the servos and other for the dc motors.
An ultra sonic sensor
is a device that can measure the distance to an object by using sound waves.it
measures distanceby sending out a sound
wave a specific frequency and listening for that sound wave to bounce back.
Ultra sonic sensor used
to find the distance between the robot and the object.echo and trigger pins are
connected to the aurdino digital pin 11 and 12.After enabling the trig pin
ultra sonic transmits the sound waves echo received the bounce back signal then
calculated distance send to aurdino.
Arduino is an
open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and
software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs – light on a
sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and turn it into an output
– activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can
tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the
microcontroller on the board.
Open source and extensible hardware –
The plans of the Arduino boards are published under a Creative Commons license,
so experienced circuit designers can make their own version of the module,
extending it and improving it. Even relatively inexperienced users can build
version of the module in
order to understand how it works and save money.
Web cam takes the
images from the environment send its to the matlab for further processing.web
cam directly connected to the pc through universal serial bus (USB).
picker/catcher (robotic arm) used to pick and hold the object controlled by the
DC used to supply the
power to the hole project.
power divided in two
directly connected to the aurdino
5V supply through buck convertor
used to display the distance between object and the robot.LCD pins D4,D5,D6,D7 connected
to the aurdino analog pins A2,A3,A4,A5.