Qualitativeapproaches are used to explore potential experiences of a particular phenomenonabout which little has been known and explored (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Thus,phenomenology was most appropriate for this study, as it examined the livedexperiences and perceptions of art education faculty members regarding thephenomenon of support cultural awareness. Max van Manen (1990) considersphenomenology as the appropriate most method to explore the phenomena ofpedagogical significance develops phenomenology as a response to how one facesto lived experience and questions the way one experiences the world.

Phenomenology focuses on obtaining an understanding of social and culturalphenomena from the perspectives of people involved, including accurate andcomprehensive data gathering on how people understand something, explain it,know about it, identify it, and have discussions about it with others(Creswell, 2014; Patton, 2015; Percy, Kostere, & Kostere, 2015). I found the value of conducting phenomenological researchwas to reveal the nature of people’s lived experience with a phenomenon such asunderstanding and implementing VC, MCAE and CA (Moustakas, 1994; van Manen,1990). Phenomenology can reveal the tacit nature of practitioners’ practicalwisdom in define and integrate CA, VC and MCA in their teaching in ways thatsupport students’ cultural awareness and can also reveal their rationale fordoing so. The hermeneutic phenomenology that has been identified as one of themajor traditions in qualitative research (Moerer-Urdahl & Creswell, 2004). Thehermeneutic phenomenological approach proved to be the most logical approachbecause it assisted the researcher to examine a common lived experience amongthe art education faculty member’s participants (Moustakas,994; van Manen,1990).According to Creswell (2012), the phenomenological approach enabledresearchers, through Moustakas’ (1994) seven steps, to reduce the livedexperiences to a central meaning. Creswell also noted that applying Moustakas’modification allowed the researchers to conduct personal connections andexperiences into the study, as well as significant descriptions and meaningsand the development of the composite explanations of the meanings and essencesof the participants.

For this reason, I used the phenomenology approach in thisstudy.