Qualitative CA (Moustakas, 1994; van Manen, 1990). Phenomenology

approaches are used to explore potential experiences of a particular phenomenon
about which little has been known and explored (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Thus,
phenomenology was most appropriate for this study, as it examined the lived
experiences and perceptions of art education faculty members regarding the
phenomenon of support cultural awareness. Max van Manen (1990) considers
phenomenology as the appropriate most method to explore the phenomena of
pedagogical significance develops phenomenology as a response to how one faces
to lived experience and questions the way one experiences the world.
Phenomenology focuses on obtaining an understanding of social and cultural
phenomena from the perspectives of people involved, including accurate and
comprehensive data gathering on how people understand something, explain it,
know about it, identify it, and have discussions about it with others
(Creswell, 2014; Patton, 2015; Percy, Kostere, & Kostere, 2015). 

I found the value of conducting phenomenological research
was to reveal the nature of people’s lived experience with a phenomenon such as
understanding and implementing VC, MCAE and CA (Moustakas, 1994; van Manen,
1990). Phenomenology can reveal the tacit nature of practitioners’ practical
wisdom in define and integrate CA, VC and MCA in their teaching in ways that
support students’ cultural awareness and can also reveal their rationale for
doing so. The hermeneutic phenomenology that has been identified as one of the
major traditions in qualitative research (Moerer-Urdahl & Creswell, 2004). The
hermeneutic phenomenological approach proved to be the most logical approach
because it assisted the researcher to examine a common lived experience among
the art education faculty member’s participants (Moustakas,994; van Manen,1990).
According to Creswell (2012), the phenomenological approach enabled
researchers, through Moustakas’ (1994) seven steps, to reduce the lived
experiences to a central meaning. Creswell also noted that applying Moustakas’
modification allowed the researchers to conduct personal connections and
experiences into the study, as well as significant descriptions and meanings
and the development of the composite explanations of the meanings and essences
of the participants. For this reason, I used the phenomenology approach in this

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