1)What is the Castellum. A castellum is a building that distributed water throughout Pompeii and Herculaneum. The task of the castellum was to spread water all over Rome for public and private use. In Source 1, it shows three lead pipes which transferred water all over the city of Pompeii. The bricks encompassing the water narrow the water allowing it to fit through the pipes. 2)Why does the engineer Vitruvius recommend a three part water distribution in a town?

A three part water distribution system was recommended by Vitruvius in towns, due to several reasons. The primary reason behind this logic was that water distribution would much easier and effective. Pipes were used for each connecting tank, allowing water to flow between the tanks. Another important reason for having a three part water distribution was due to the belief that it may generate an annual income for the state, with the central tanks to be connected to the pipes that ran through the basins and fountains.

Another reason behind Vitruvius’s recommendation of such a plan was due to the fact that water would not run short for public use, whilst the people living in private houses not being able to divert water if they only have their own supplies from headquarters. Another suggestion of Vitruvius was that such a plan would allow easier monitoring of the use of water and who was receiving water, allowing individual taxes on water to be issued, allowing contractors to continue the conducting of water flow. 3)Explain the path of water flow for the following. )Collecting water from a Castellum. Water from the Castellum was sent to the main tank, for supplying water. The main tank was a brick building located near the Vesuvius gate, which stood at the highest location in the town and was also positioned near the forum baths. This building played a primary role in the water being diverted from the Serinum aqueduct to the towns of Vesuvius. There was also another Castellum, tasked with distributing water all over Pompeii, in order to assist an individual’s needs.

For example: water being used in the home, public fountains and public and private baths. b)Water for the Fullonica of Stephanus The Fullonica of Stephanus was filled with water from a series of large basins which usually connected to the city’s water supply. Another three basins were usually connected to the basins. The role of the other basins was that fresh water entered one side whereas the dirty water was left on the other side. Clothing washed within these basins were first washed in the dirtiest basin then preceded to the cleanest.

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The water source which flowed to the Fullonica of Stephanus derived from the Castellum, in which then flowed to individual secondary towers or columns with the water. The water was then pumped to a series of public fountains and private houses. c)Water for kitchen use in a wealthy home Indoor plumbing was rare and usually seen in the homes of the wealthy. Indoor plumbing consisted of a usual lead water pipe which ran horizontally on the ground floor of the home laid in a trough.

The trough was covered in order to conceal the pipe to prevent it from being damaged. Most of the time, to the left of the pipe was a curb, enclosing an embellishing pool and garden. Secondary tanks distributed water for kitchen and private uses in the home. 4)Would you consider the construction of the water systems in Pompeii and Herculaneum to be health conscious? In my consideration the construction of the water systems of Pompeii and Herculaneum were health conscious, beside the fact that lead pipes were used which caused lead poisoning.

Beside this fact, the sanitary conditions of both cities were considered very high at that time. Flushing systems were evident in latrines, dramatically reducing the risk of infectious diseases. The sewerage system was also of a good standard as waste such as urine and faeces were swept away into the sewers away from city, minimizing the risk of disease. 5)Compare and contrast the function of a Castellum and Water Tower. The functions of a Castellum and water tower are similar yet different to an extent.

A Castellum was the primary water channel that helped in diverting the water throughout the city, through a series of 3 large lead pipes that lead to various places such as the public baths, fountains and for private use. On the other hand a water tower was used to manage the high water pressure (19 feet tall) caused by the slope of the terrain. These water towers were generally located at crossroads and near fountains. The main application of these towers was to simply provide people close to the towers with fresh water along with the environment.

Extended Response: Discuss the public and private uses of water in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Public and private uses of water varied in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Water was pumped to the main castellum where a series of 3 large lead pipes carried it to different neighbourhoods: to the baths, to the water towers or columns feeding the public fountains and regulating pressure, and to private houses. The three outlets could be blocked to regulate supply. Only the houses of the wealthiest citizens had indoor plumbing. Others would have to carry water from troughs set along the main streets.

Water would flow continuously into these troughs, regulated by water towers nearby. Pompeiian plumber’s fashioned iron gutters in private homes so the water would be collected in an atrium from an open roof where the water ran down the roof tiles. Water channels fed into lead pipes under pavements to all parts of the city including to houses and to fountains at regular intervals along the streets. An example is the fountain of Hercules located at the crossroads of the Decumanus Maximus and Cardo IV in Herculaneum; where the rectangular basin is made of four travertine plates linked by cramps.

Many houses were connected directly to the system after the Augustan age and had running water. In the houses of the more affluent there were decorative basins (nymphaea) and fountains, pools and even some private baths. Private houses were required to pay a water tax. Water was also used in industries such as Fullonica (laundries) and dying processes, bakeries and Garum production. Water was also used in latrines, both private and public such as the latrines in Pompeii located in the forum, at the baths and at the Palaestra (sports field) Public baths were a luxury and become a necessity.

The public baths were regarded as more of a place of social connection then a place of hygiene. Public baths become an integral part of Roman life, and were visited on a daily routine. The women usually used the baths early in the morning whilst the men went in the afternoon. Water had both a practical and social use in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Whether it is for private use or public use, water was a necessity in both cities. The wealthy could afford to have their own water fountains and baths, whilst the less fortune depended on water troughs and public baths for practical and social uses that water provided.


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