Psychological Tests and Measurements

The Rorschach inkblot test was named after Hermann Rorschach and was introduced in the year 1921. It is a kind of projective personality measure made to assess activeness and attentiveness such as your self perception, the way things affect you, your coping style, your perception in relationships, and even attentiveness to experiences. In this test, the underlying personality of an individual is revealed by the use of inkblots designs by which the patient responds by telling what image or emotion is evoked by the design.

In taking the standard test protocol the patient will be given a card in order which will be put directly in his hands facing up and in orientation. The psychologist will record everything you say. The psychologist carefully notes all the verbal responses that the patient will make. Every gestures and body movements may also be noted, as you are taking the test, the psychologist is not suppose to ask you to answer in an instant and he’ll not hurry you up in responding. The word this is a…according to psychologists is a bad answer or response because the cards doesn’t really have a precise figure.

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Responding something like this looks like a…is more appropriate. This psychological projective test tends the patient to project what he actually sees or what he thinks he saw in the card. The inkblot seems to have no different structure with spoken word or verbal and non-verbal such as gestures. Each interpretation maybe sometimes true, sometimes false, sometimes meaningful, and sometimes meaningless, it is a test in which it tends the patient to reveal his inner self (Rorschach, 1921 ) Objective test MMPI: The MMPI is originally aimed to adult population but was then intended to add teenagers, most for teens about 15 and above.

This test is often used in a custody evaluation. It gives clear explanation about symptoms and people’s problems. This is a powerful instrument that can be used and is allowed to be used as evidence in the court. Though, this must be interpreted due to the client’s biographical and other information. The psychologist interpreting MMPI must know all the relevant factors including the patient’s gender, age, religious background, residence, education, and other useful historical data. The information must be based truthfully with a research data in other for the interpretation to be valid.

This is used to asses’ personality dynamics including anxiety, impulsiveness, thought disorder, verbal manipulation, and treatment motivation. MMPI #2: This is a valid expansion and revision of the first MMPI. According to one of the researcher with regards to MMPI #2 who is James Butcher, the clinical scales of the latter MMPI is still intact in the revised version. This test is useful in domestic relations cases , it has been cited in a lot of cases with regards to the issues of evaluation of custody, and limitations as well as termination of parental rights including adoption.

It is useful to find out the children’s best interest. (Cheryl L. Karp, 1998-2006 ). Advantages of Rorschach test: Images are less obvious that’s why it is harder to fake. It may tap underlying or unconscious psychological processes. It will help us determine or notice some abnormalities which symptoms are not immediately seen. It is effective with guarded patients and or kids. It describes the perceptual-cognitive answers of an individual, Gives us information about our weaknesses and strengths. Lets you express your thought. It allows the clinician to bypass conscious defenses.

Disadvantages: It has an unclear reliability and validity. It has cross-cultural issues. It is complicated and also confusing for its complex scoring system. The whole process is a time consuming test. The answers may not always be true. Interpretations are not precise. Most of the interpretations are merely theory. The behaviors are merely predictions. This type of test is not preferable in other cases rather than personality confusion. The truth value of the interpretation may sometimes be worthless at all (“The Rorschach Test”, 2000).

Advantages of Objective test: It has the ability to assess the broad range of psychological range using a limited professional time. The objectivity of the format makes an easy way in administrating either group or individual type of settings such as in school. This test could be readily finished by most of the adolescent in merely an hour. It is really easy for the computer to administer the test. Scoring is easy; either by computer or by manual. Its result has a content validity for the problems of the adolescents with regards to peer group influence, school issues, and even family relations.

It contains a validity scale which will tell the interpreter if such as faking good or exaggerating takes place. It depends on valid researches with regards to the patients possible disturbances and or problems(Butcher, 2006). Disadvantages: Psychologists may give interpretations that are far beyond what the test can assess. The results are not always true. Some cases match a wrong scale number that lead the psychologists to confusion. Results may be a false one due to computer error. Because the test is made with the use of computers for interpreting the possible answer, this type of test costs expensive(Cheryl L. Karp, 1998-2006 ).

Information about some fallacies: Confirmation Bias This starts when a clinician makes a first impression about the patient. The result of his interpretation may be affected by his impression towards the patient such as he may be in favor or not-in favor of the result and might as well change it. Switching some conditional probabilities This states that the interpretation of X’s psycho test results to this certain answer. The certain answer is interpreted through Z’s test result. There and then they both have the same case of problem.

Unstandardizing a standardized test A standardized test basically refers with validity, specificity, sensitivity, and other measures which came from an actuarial base. It happens when a supposed-to-be followed system of the test is changed or not-followed. Appear to ignorance This happens when one of the two results are to be chosen of. When the clinician finds no relevant or sufficient basis for the first result, then he will assume that the second result is the valid one. Division Fallacy This fallacy states the fault thought “being a part of a certain group means possessing the group’s characteristics”.

False analogy An analogy test is what’s done and then the argument seemed to be misleading not knowing that a sufficient or essential part of the interpretation is missing. False dilemma This is where a complex of result outcomes is presented. The clinician will have to choose only some of the results which have the most possible relativity from the other entire continuum. These are the fallacies that are commonly done by psychologists without them noticing it. These fallacies occur either in projective test or objective test and or in other psychological tests.

This leads the clinician to come to a mislead results of interpretations or totally wrong results (Pope, 2003). The contrast between objective and projective test: Projective type of psychological test interprets the patient and comes up with the result due to his note-taking. In the contrary, the MMPI or objective type of psychological test uses the personal account of the patient as a basis of his interpretation. Most of the clinicians use the objective type such as MMPI, because not unlike the other type of test, the objective test gives a relevant and valid result.

They differ in a lot of structures and ways. Comparing these two types of psychological test, the often used one is the MMPI. It is often used in court cases and mental problems because projective test is a time consuming psychological activity which would not give you at least a definite answer from a patient’s response. The objective test is useful in legal cases while the projective test is useful in personality interpretation.

Conclusion: I came up to the fact that between the two given types of psychological tests, none of them are precise in giving personality result. The other one which is objective test is better than that of the Rorschach because its basis is from the patient’s personal accounts like age, gender, and other more personal information. The Rorschach type of test gives an unclear result because it is merely what the psychologists interpreted from the patient’s recorded statements while the test was made. Therefore in this research, I have successfully sought the fact that MMPI as such example of Objective test will lead you to more valid outcomes and that it is much more preferred by most of the clinician that that of the other psychological tests.