This paper will discuss the field of professional code of medical ethics. The paper will further discuss thoroughly the at least six professional medical code of ethics and discuss the strongest point of view to the principles that is inline with the philosophy from utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, ethics of care or virtue ethics, etc. This is a topic to reveals on part one. While on part two, compare and contrast at least two different codes of ethics, that is, they may or may not be the same ones you choose for part one explain the most notable similarities and differences between the two codes.

This may include principles that are similar, but seem to have different justifications. “The need for special ethical principles in a scientific society is the same as the need for ethical principles in society as a whole. They are mutually beneficial. They help make our relationships mutually pleasant and productive. A professional society is a voluntary, cooperative organization, and those who must conform to its rules are also those who benefit from the conformity of others. Each has a stake in maintaining general compliance (“Ethics”. http://phoenicia. bsd. uchicago. edu)”.

Part 1 “A code of conduct is a formal statement of the values and business practices of a corporation. A code may be a short mission statement, or it may be a sophisticated document that requires compliance with articulated standards and have a complicated enforcement mechanism. As business becomes globalize, interest groups, governments, educational institutions, industry associations and others to adopt codes of conduct are encouraging companies (“Code of Conducts”. http://www. codesofconduct. org) A 39-year-old female undergoes an amniocentesis.

The results indicate that the fetus s not suffering from certain genetic abnormalities. The mother requests to know the sex of the fetus. This information is refused on the grounds that an abortion might be requested if the fetus is not of the ‘right’ sex. Analysis of basic principles “If we return to the examples with which we started the study, we might be able to abstract some common principles that are being appealed to implicitly. One such principle is the Principle of Autonomy, that is, the principle that in certain areas an individual has a right to be self-governing.

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This is particularly evident in the euthanasia example’ and the ‘pain-killer example’ (Singleton, Jane. Publisher: Mosby. Place of Publication: St. Louis, MO. Publication Year: 1995. Page Number: 7)”. In the ‘euthanasia example’, the Principle of Autonomy is being respected since the woman’s wish to die has been granted. Presumably, it is also felt by both the consultant and the woman’s son that her well-being or benefit lies in this course of action.

Thus, the action is also what is required by the Principle of Beneficence, that is, the principle that the well-being or benefit of the individual ought to be promoted. By way of contrast, in the ‘pain-killer example’ the Principle of Autonomy is overridden by the Principle of Beneficence. The action is assumed to be for the benefit or well-being of the individual being treated and it is this that justifies overriding the individual’s autonomy. In the ‘mother-to-be example’, the Principle of Non-malfeasance is relevant. ‘One ought to do no harm’ is a principle that is at the heart of health care. In this case, the possibility of harming the fetus is overridden in favor of what are taken to be the benefits of having the test, or the Principle of Beneficence.

A Principle of Justice might also be involved in this sort of case since limited resources might raise the question of who is thought to be eligible to have this diagnostic test (McLauren, Susan. author. Publisher: Mosby. Place of Publication: St. Louis, MO. Publication Year: 1995. Page Number: 10)”. Other three medical professional Ethics: “Medical Billing Professionals perform an essential role in the health care industry. Consistence with that role, we have the responsibility of providing competent and professional services to those who retain our services.

Additionally, we recognize a continuing responsibility to maintain and improve our services for the good of the general public. The principles of objectivity impose the obligation to be impartial, ineffectually honest, and free of conflicts of interest. Impartiality precludes relationships that may appear to impair our objectivity in rendering services. We just remain impartial and objective and are free of conflicts of interest in discharging our professional responsibilities. We should be independent in fact and appearance when providing our services.

Objectivity is a state of mind, a quality that leads value to our services. We must observe our profession’s technical standards, strive continually to improve competence and the quality of services, and discharge professional responsibility to the best of our ability. Due care requires us to discharge professional responsibility with competence and elegance. Competence begins with an understanding of the basic Knowledge required to provide our service. Competence represents the attainment and maintenance of a level of understanding and knowledge that enables us to render service with facility and acumen. Diligence imposes the responsibility to render services promptly and carefully, to be through (“Medical Billing Professional”. http://www. compliantbilling. com)”.

Part II: In the case of injecting the old woman I could be in favor and the doctors do the job in accordance to what so called mercy killing. It is right to kill and is not against the medical code since it was specified accordingly on the part of the patient who does suffers a great pain and at the sometime helping the patient to overcome too much pain.

Anyway there’s no such chance for the patient to be healed so better mercy killing be possible at least to ease such too much hardship on the patient to not experience too much. Similarly the part of the mother who wants to know what sexuality does a child has, I think its not against the law of code of ethics since, what if the fetus is ill and that found out to be the rest of the life if the fetus will be alive, better know first inside the womb of the mother will count much as well.

Taking into accounts if the fetus will alive with such illness of her or his entire life, its better to not letting fetus in exist rather than suffers in the existing to become ill. It seems the doctor is helping the life of the mother and the fetus too. To this situation of the mother case, it helps her to determine her responsibility as mother to know where her child is healthy and if not have to find means to look how the problem can be resolve. Principles such as these do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, but guide doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances.

The principles sometimes contradict each other leading to ethical dilemmas. For example, the principles of autonomy and beneficence clash when patients refuse life-saving blood transfusion, and truthfulness may not always be upheld regarding the use of placebos in some instances. To reconcile conflicting principles, one should specializes in medical ethics, propounds a theory that would require us to advocate our action publicly if we were to violate any basic moral principles, that is, break a promise in order to save a life.

Other philosophers, such as R. M. Hare, would require us to formulate a universal prescription in conformance with logic, such that all rational parties, including the patient, assuming he is rational, would subscribe to the same action in all circumstances that share the same essential properties. Other such action to consider in general, regulations was changed to allow research in emergency settings where subjects are unable to give their consent.

This change was necessary because of a combination of the seriousness of patients’ illness or injury, and circumstances when no family member is available to decide on behalf of the patient. This waiver of the consent requirement was motivated by the desire to find new ways of improving the survival of patients in life-threatening situations such as severe head injury or in cardiac arrest, but it required a seminal change in the policies that protect research subjects. Further more some other reason to consider as to very critical and no risk at all to be expected to some extent.


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