Chapter 4 – Product and Service Design TOPIC Product and Service Design Trends in Product & Service Design Product or Service Design Activities Reasons for Product or Service Design Design for Operations Sources of Ideas for Products and Services The Design Process Quality Function Deployment Reverse Engineering Design for Manufacturing Manufacturability Legal, Ethical, and Environmental Issues Regulations & Legal Considerations Research and Development (R&D) Standardization Advantages of Standardization Disadvantages of Standardization Product Design
Life Cycles of Products or Services (Figure) Robust Design Taguchi Approach Robust Design Concurrent Engineering “Over the Wall” Approach (Figure) Computer-Aided Design Modular Design Differences Between Product and Service Design SIGNIFICANCE Product design is more important than ever because customers are demanding greater product variety and are switching more quickly to products with state-of-the-art technology. The impacts of greater product variety and shorter product life cycles have a multiplicative effect on the number of new products and derivative products that need to be designed.
Firms are recognizing that the concept behind design for manufacturing can also be extended beyond cost control to design products that are easy to service and maintain. Improving manufacturability is an important goal for product design. It can be a powerful tool to improve product quality and lower manufacturing cost. CONTENTS •Major factors in strategy -Cost -Quality -Time –to- market -Customer satisfaction -Competitive advantage •Increased emphasis on or attention to: -Customer satisfaction -Reducing time to introduce new product or service Reducing time to produce product -The organization’s capabilities to produce or deliver the item -Environmental concerns -Designing products & services that are “ user friendly” -Designing products that use less material •Translate customer wants and needs into product and service requirements •Refine existing products and services •Develop new products and services •Formulate quality goals •Formulate cost targets •Construct and test prototypes •Document specifications •Be competitive •Increase business growth & profits Avoid downsizing with development of new products •Improve product quality •Achieve cost reductions in labor or materials •Development time and cost •Resulting product or service quality •Capability to produce or deliver a given product or service •Taking into account the capabilities of the organization in designing goods and services •Internal -Employees -Marketing department -R&D department •External -Customers (QFD) -Competitors -Suppliers •Begins with motivation for design •To achieve goals of the organization •Ultimately, customer is the driving force Must have ideas for new or improved designs -Voice of the customer -House of quality QFD: An approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into the product and service development process. Reverse engineering is the dismantling and inspecting of a competitor’s product to discover product improvements. Beyond the overall objective to achieve customer satisfaction while making a reasonable profit is: Design for Manufacturing (DFM) The designers’ consideration of the organization’s manufacturing capabilities when designing product.
The more general term design for operations encompasses services as well as manufacturing •Manufacturability is the ease of fabrication and /or assembly which is important for: -Cost -Productivity -Quality •Legal -FDA, OSHA, IRS -Product Liability -Uniform commercial code •Ethical -Releasing products with defects •Environmental -EPA •Product liability – A manufacturer is liable for any injuries or damages caused by a faulty product. •Uniform Commercial Code – Products carry an implication of merchantability and fitness. Organized efforts to increase scientific knowledge or product innovation & may involve: -Basic research advances knowledge about a subject without near-term expectations of commercial applications. -Applied Research achieves commercial applications. -Development converts results of applied research into commercial applications. •Extent to which there is absence of variety in a product service or process. •Fewer parts to deal with in inventory & manufacturing •Reduced training costs and time •More routine purchasing, handling, and inspection procedures •Orders fillable from inventory Opportunities for long production runs and automation •Need for fewer parts justify increased expenditures on perfecting designs and improving quality control procedures. •Designs may be frozen with too many imperfections remaining. •High cost of design changes increases resistance to improvements. •Decreased variety results in less consumer appeal. •Product life cycles •Robust Design •Concurrent Engineering •Computer – Aided Design •Modular Design •Design for Manufacturing (DFM) •Design for assembly (DFA) •Design for recycling (DFR) •Remanufacturing •Design for disassembly (DFD) •Robust design
Robust Design: Design that results in products or services that can function over a broad range of conditions •Design a robust product -Insensitive to environmental factors either in manufacturing or in use. •Central feature is Parameter Design. •Determines: -Factors that are controllable and those not controllable -Their optimal levels relative to major product advances Concurrent engineering is the bringing together of engineering design and manufacturing personnel early in the design phase. •Computer – Aided Design (CAD) is product design using computer graphics. -Increases productivity of designers, 3 to 10 times Creates a database for manufacturing information on product specifications -Provides possibility of engineering and cost analysis on proposed designs Modular Design is a form of standardization in which component parts are subdivided into modules that are easily replaced or interchanged. It allows: -Easier diagnosis and remedy of failures -Easier repair and replacement -Simplification of manufacturing and assembly •Tangible – intangible •Services created and delivered at the same time •Services cannot be inventoried •Services highly visible to customers •Services have low barrier to entry •Location important to service