I’ve seen that the drastic and inevitable changes that happen in the society today lead to the increase in the differences of the social status among individuals. I do believe that these differences are being enhanced depending on the economic, political, religious, and social backgrounds of individuals belonging to different societies. Today, factors including the advancement of education, technology, and communication affect such differences. Enhancement in such differences augments the rise of several social issues in different nations, including poverty, unemployment, hunger, crimes, and punishment.
These social issues, thus, along with technologic, education, and communication advancements, determine the improvement and development of a particular nation. In line with this, I think it would be relevant and beneficial to analyze and evaluate the issues regarding crime and punishment such as imprisonment, to further provide understanding and enlightenment on the current situation of prisoners in the country. As such, the current crime and punishment situation of a particular nation indicates its political, economic, and social improvement of development.
With this, I aimed to evaluate the programs given by the government to the prisoners. It attempts to determine what are these programs or punishments given the government to make the prisoners rehabilitated. Actually, prison management is needed in order to rehabilitate the prisoners rather than by simply arresting them and making their lives difficult. I believed that prison management works on the conjecture that the need or the incompetence of prison supervision can lead to vicious effects in terms of the security of the prisoners, the civilians and the prison staffs in general.
Thus, prison administration does not only require competent professionals for the job but rather, it necessitates a high degree of proficiency in organizational and administrative planning and implementation. The Punishment From the investigation that I’ve conducted, it has been reported that tortures and cruel treatment are officially prohibited in our prisons today, and in which practice torture is defined by the international law against both children and adults (Prison and Probation Services 2002).
According to the government, a person’s dignity is inviolable; no one must be subject to torture, violence, or other treatment and punishment that is cruel and humiliating to human dignity (Prison and Probation Services 2002). Therefore, the violations to these are punishable by law. Cruel treatment, in this sense, includes rape, which is the act of forced sexual intercourse, without the consent of the victim. Actually in my investigation in Kazakhstan, the violations may include child abuse, torture and negligence.
These violations based on my investigation, provides imprisonment for 4 to 10 years for rape of an adolescent girl; from 4 to 10 years of imprisonment for sexual violence; for up to 3 years of imprisonment for depravation of minors; and for up to 2 years of imprisonment for non-fulfillment of one’s responsibilities on child care (Addendum: Kazakhstan 2001). Moreover, the use of capital punishment is legal in Kazakhstan, and if necessary, it is being implemented and reinforced by the government.
According to an expert that I interviewed, capital punishment is the type of punishment beyond the criminal weight and against the principles of human rights, and should come out on one level with developed democracies, where the human being is the highest value. From this, it can be understood that the implementation of capital punishment against crimes, such as rape and child abuse is still given importance. In my opinion, our governments are now making efforts to humanize the approach to punishment, and bring it closer to international norms and standards.
So let say in minor violation, the law introduced community service, which should be free of charge to offenders and to employers because employers not only must provide offenders with jobs and supervise job execution, but they also must ensure that the money earned is given to the state. Similarly, the desk review that I’ve conducted identifies committed crimes in United Kingdom against other persons and property is punishable by imprisonment (All Crime – British Crime Survey Data 2007). This is because like other countries under the supervision of the European Union, abolition of death penalty or capital punishment has been abolished.
The abolition of the capital punishment in the United Kingdom is in line with its reinforcement of the human rights principles. In terms of the punishment of the youth or juveniles, their sentences depend on their behavior, such that they serve their sentences in different conditions, namely, normal, privileged, or rigorous. From my investigation, incentives are now offered to juveniles depending on their conduct, conscientious attitude to their studies, active participation in the activities of amateur organizations, and in educational measures.
These incentives include the right to attend cultural spectacles and sporting events, and the right to leave the colony accompanied by parents or close relatives. In addition, punishment in schools can also be implemented, such as corporal and other types of degrading punishments, including humiliation. On the other hand, I do believe that the punishment of the young offenders has evolved during the course of its long history. Nowadays, less sympathy with offenders and more sympathy for victims lead to an intense desire to punish.
This is why youth offenders could be given Community Service Orders, which mean doing many hours of social work to show that the youth offender is repaying a debt to society (‘Crime and Punishment’ 2008 and Bennett 2008). With this, the youth offenders are given the chance to show his repentance and regret for committing the crime. This also serves to take the chance to be forgiven by the victims of the offenders. From this, young offenders would also have the chance to be reconciled with their families, live normally, and attain all the rights and privileges that they are entitled to.
I know that the current prison systems are facing lot of problems. It should be rehabilitated and therefore it needs effective management procedures. To do this, I may suggests that prison managers need to start by carefully assessing sentences of prisoners in order to determine their problems, their histories of offending and the reasons behind it, as well as if there is any support from their families, and whether they will have accommodations after release, etc. Induction should not be regarded as an event but rather, as an ongoing process.
I asserted that staffs must keep returning to “measure” and obtain more detail from offenders regarding what will help bring about significant change. Thus as part of recommendation of rehabilitation, I believed that prison management should create a sentence plan for the individual who, over the period of detention, tries to address these issues, ending up with a workable release plan. On the other hand, I’ve also seen that our prisons have always been portrayed in a grotesque manner: overcrowded, violent and rowdy.
Thus, as part of rehabilitation, I suggest that the need for an efficient and effective regulating body within the prison system is a necessity. This is particularly crucial for the governor of the prison system since the task of regulating the prisoners, the difficulty and troubles that takes place inside and the performance index issued by the government in the performance index of the prison system, would determine the effectiveness for which they handle their jobs.
In this paper I will discuss the process for formulating the plan that includes the factors to be considered in administering and rehabilitating prison systems, the problems and challenges in prisons and the role of the prison governor in the system, the content of the plan and the operational framework. Prison Governance Factors From the desk research and observation to prisons that I’ve conducted, an evaluation of the formalities of the convict system is needed to provide the outlines of existence for persons who came or became free.
Institutions set up for the management of a convict population provided the basics of free existence. But these institutions were perceived of differently because economics was for the admiration bound up with morality. However, Byrne (1997) posited that when looking closely at the culture of prison administration, it is governed by emotion. Basically, I also considered the argument of Goldberg, 1993 as he stated that the recent call for cultural diversity being implemented in part through recent laws is a conundrum (Goldberg, 1993, p. 220).
Corporate culture of the modern state, for example, now acts as if it has discovered diversity, so far it is only a research and is normally exercised in a officious way, rather than in native structures where diversity, particularly respect for the diversity of nature, was innate (Fitzpatrick, 1992 and Lauderdale & Cruit, 1993). With regards to my investigation, I found out that diversity in prison governance tends to become an integral part of management. Despite the cultural diversity among Prison system, there was a commonality in the use of civil rather than criminal sanctions.
Thus, I may say that the ordinary reason of local jurisprudence stems from the reverence for all life forms than the contemporary separation of humans from environment. From a sociological viewpoint, modern jurisprudence, the study of law and legal philosophy and the use of its ideas in law to regulate conduct, differs significantly from law-ways, the “law” of indigenous prison system (Black, 1976, 1993; Garland, 1990; Deloria, 1992; Friedman, 1985; and Bryans, Shane and David Wilson. 2000). However, I may that even recent laws that intend to protect the environment are usually shortsighted and fragmented.
As I look at the current stance of prisons today, it seems that rehabilitation is needed. Based in my observation, the prison officers’ duties should contain patrolling, security, reception, counselling, escorting and assessment of offenders before sentencing. Some also specialize in staff training and staff supervision, or are responsible for a section of the prison (Prison and Probation Services, 2002). However, there are prison officers who are not performing or even capable to perform their duties. Therefore there is a need to require them to be fit enough in order to control vicious prisoners.
They also need to be capable in working with other people, and they need sensitivity and humanity to help prisoners to develop the personal skills and self-confidence necessary to re-enter society and not re-offend. On the other hand, I also observed that currently prison managers and governors run and manage prisons, and units within prisons, even though newly selected governors will perform a particular role like staff training or security. They also perform other responsibilities involve in working on entrance, discharge and parole boards, directing prison officers, giving disciplinary actions, and liaison with new officers.
Basically, my belief that communication skills in this system are important and they need to be both resilient under pressure and mature enough to do certain tasks was justified in Prison and Probation Services, (2002). As part of the rehabilitation that I suggested, it is also possible that prison governors should be responsible for budgets in their respective prisons. However, they should also be held accountable for the results. That would leave the Prison Service headquarters to concentrate on two things. First, governors need clear standards within which to operate.
Then, freed from the need to expend energy protecting ministers, HQ can start to carve out a renewed mandate. The public needs to be told not just that prison works, but how it works – and for whom. In addition to the rehabilitation plan, I suggested that that a governor in prisons must acquire the role as a manager, leader, co-ordinator, expert and administrator in order to have an efficient correctional facility. This reflects the assertion that the position of the governor as a highly complicated and a multifaceted position.