presupposition.With this proposition, a question immediately arise which is whether betweenthe truth and knowledge exists any correspondence at that time. He starts with aperfect identity of the known and the knower, an identity that cannot be detectedwithin subjectivity. With this notion of complete identity on subjectivity, thecommon-sense understanding differentiates conditional knowledge, which is thecombination knowledge comes from reality from unconditional knowledge, which isextracted from human intelligence and analytic and indeed is no real knowledge.Moving beyond the conditional knowledge of the Absolute to the unconditionalknowledge of the Absolute which is an immediate affirmation of thisaffirmation.
As immediate knowledge of the absolute, Reason is AbsoluteKnowledge.Reason asmentioned here is the idea of God as ‘an immediate, absolute, unconditional identity’.The Spirit unconditionally aware its absolute which can never be further basedin concept, is which Schelling calls ‘intellectual intuition’. It is called intuitiondue to it concept is not mediated yet but still immediate, and it isintellectual due to it stays beyond the reality and it has as its certify itsself-affirmation. As the unconditional base of knowledge, ‘intellectualintuition’ is not even related to of inner sense. Indeed, what Fichte calls’intellectual intuition’ is not seen to be a product of the inner sense but belongsto the unconditional absolute and stays beyond the self-consciousness circle. The nature ofReason can be assumed to be ‘intellectual intuition’ whose thing is exclusivelythe absolute which is unique and substance.
By the high moral standards of thisaffirmation, Reason acknowledges “the eternal impossibility of non-being”.Being here is not an indication of God as something internal or external, butGod and being here is the product of analytic, immediately and unconditionally objectwithout duration. This absolute identity is infinite by high moral standards ofits idea. Thence, God can neither be concerned as the last result of theself-negation of divergence, nor be included in a process of product. Theindivisibility and univocity of Being or God is neither a numerical idea nor a notionof ensemble as aggregate unity of finite individual. This is due to theindivisibility and univocity of the God is the base for infinite separation inform or by chance.
God as theabsolute identity is a intrinsical, qualitative identity. Absolute indiscriminationfollows from the essential recognition of the absolute. Therefore, absolute indiscriminationis not in-itself intrinsical but a quantitative recognition. Indeed, there is adifference between absolute identity and absolute indiscrimination. The contradictorybetween real and ideal, between subject and object grows out of thisindifference.
This is the creation of the finite world. The theory of potenciesin triplicates here is explained by Schelling which are “the essential modes ofapparitions of the real and ideal universes”. Even the potencies in triplicatesare “the essential modes of apparitions” of the finite universes, they couldnot be useable to the absolute identity. Schelling, withthe theory of potencies, introduces the existing of the finite universes – theare originally object. The finite’s existing, are non-being in respect to theuniversal, is absolute identity, but examined independently, they are not perfectlydevoid of being. They are in part being and in part non-being.
I. Hegel’s hypothesis The notion Hegel used as the essential point in hisphilosophy is the concept of Reason, as concerned to his idea of ‘God’. To him,the only Thought Which Philosophy bring with it to the completion of History isthe simple conception of Reason, that reason is the sovereign of the World,that the history of the World, therefore, present us with a rational process.
Pious personsbelieve that God has an unknowable plan that guides history. To explain historyis to depict the passions of mankind, the genius and the active powers, thatplay their part on the grate stage, and the providentially determined processwhich they exhibit constitutes what is the general called the plan ofProvidence. Pious person is encouraged to recognize in particularcircumstances, something more than a mere chance, to acknowledge the guidinghand of God. But Hegel believes that this is close to the truth, but that God’splan is knowable through philosophy. The “God’s” Hegel frequently mentioned as’Reason”.
This Reason to Hegel is not simply a logical thinking, an Idea orintension exists beyond reality, something invisible and abstracts, which cannotbe expose itself completely, and stays in the heads of mankind. The Reason here, toHegel is the substance of the Universe, which involve all the objects, theprocesses, all the system and everything, every concept with a name or withouta name. On the other hand, it is the Infinite Energy of the Universe.
It is theInfinite complex of things, their entire Essence and Truth. Pious personsbelieve help has unexpectedly come to an individual in great perplexity andneed. But in the history of the World, the Individuals we had to deal with arepeoples, totalities that are States (Burns & Payment-Pickard, 2000, S. 84-89). Generally understanding,Reason sovereigns the world. The Reason is mentioned here which is not abrilliance human’s mind and their intelligence as the self-consciousness.
It isalso not Spirit. However, Spirit is the essence of Reason (Burns & Payment-Pickard, 2000, S. 86).
It is necessary toclearly differentiate these three concept – they are essential concepts inHegel’ philosophy. All the processes of the factsin the Universal, for example, the solar system in the movement of an unchangeablerule, they are the apart the Reason. All the objects and concept in this’Reason’ interact in rational processes. To me, the ‘rational’ should beemphasized and concerned as a matter. Because in the complex Universal,irrational processed will disappear itself or be destroyed by rationalexistence. A thought of this kind — that Nature is an embodiment of Reason;that it is unchangeably subordinate to universal laws, appears nowise strikingor strange to us. that Reason governs and has governed the World — andraises the question of the possibility of a knowledge of God (The Philosophy of History, S. 24-26).
Anothersignificant concept in Hegel’s philosophy is ‘Spirit’. In fact, it includes theentire mental and morality of human being. It is indeed only the impersonal andabstract use of the term that is open to objection; an objection which can bemet by an appeal to the best classical usage. To Hegel, Spirit is the essencewhich to distinguish human being with animal. One indisputable instance maysuffice in confirmation: “Their horses i.e., of the Egyptians are flesh andnot spirit.
” (The Philosophy of History, S. 6-7). This is theobvious qualitative difference between human beings and animals. the Spirit(der Geist) that leads into Truth, knows all things, penetrates even into thedeep things of the Godhead. II. Argument1.
Theconcept of God in in the Wissenschaftslehre Inthe time before Fichte’s work, God was noted as completely transcendent. God isconcerned as an inherent part of the world and cannot be separated from theworld in the age of Wissenschaftslehre.It seems like the Wissenschaftslehre targetsto draw a logical conclusion from the absolute Ego to the individual Ego. Theabsolute Ego is established as unconditioned ground of the individual Ego andNon-Ego.
From the individual Ego and Non- Ego, the unconditioned ground buildsup the absolute Ego. Base on this point, the definition of absolute Ego couldbe understood as an “Ego in whose self-determination all the Non-Ego isdetermined.” The concept of this absolute Ego is also the idea ‘God’ and thebelief in God is denoted by the exertion to attain this absolute Ego.
Becausethe human capability and knowledge has no practical perception of this idea,therefore, we cannot be able go further from this unconditional belief. In theempirical perception, it is known as God. On the other hand, in the theoreticalaspect, it is the Absolute Ego. Fichte also explain to Jacobi that Absolute Ego inthe Wissenschaftslehre can be understood as God, which isdeduced from the individual Ego (Leighton, 1895). Incompare with the ‘God’ in Hegel, the idea of God that was identical with theAbsolute Ego which is drawn from the individual Ego seems to be the subjectivepoint of view and too abstract.
It also seems to narrow down the power of ‘God’to the world and the universal. 2. The concept of God in Taylor During the time which people showthe attitudes, behaviors and activities that have no religious aspect and nospiritual basic, Charles Taylor has efforted to protect the phenomenon ofreligion. However, in his study on the Western secularization, there is no clueof the disappearing of religion, it was simply experiencing the change ofitself as a process of development. As I understand, this process is some pointrelevant the process of development of History in Hegel’s Philosophy and heuses the analogy of the phoenix to illustrate the process.
In addition, Taylor analysis also demonstratesthat the significance of religion still remains firmly. It is not faded away ordecreases in any level. The religion presents in different way, stays privateand shows in public. To prove the being present and