PREFACE

 

Praise the presence of God Almighty
for all the abundance of grace and the gift of him so that the creation of this
paper can be able to complete the author well. I also say many thanks to all
those who have contributed in giving his ideas on paper so that your donation
is for the better.

Term paper writing is expected to
provide information for the readers, about “The Bomb Exploded, The Sea in
Damaged” a lot happened in the sea area of Indonesia from past to present.

I realized because of limited
knowledge and experience, this paper still has many shortcomings, therefore,
criticism and suggestions from readers who build it is desirable for the sake
of perfection of this paper.

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PREFACE all the abundance of grace and the
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Jakarta, 25th
December 2017

 

 

 

 

Nurma Sari Isnaini

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  Issue Background

Indonesia is an archipelago with a
vast sea area and is expected to reach 5.8 million km2. As we know 3/4
from the territory of the country is the ocean. In the Sea there are many
sources of high-protein food that is eating the fish, energy from currents and
waves of sea water, as well as minerals and products with high selling price
like pearls. The Sea also serves as a producer of oxygen is necessary for human
life or for the media transportation far in life.

A sea of Indonesia is rich in
biodiversity, it is estimated there are 350 species of fauna, of which there
are 32 of 87 kinds of marine mammals in the world of a group of dolphins,
dugong, endangered whales, and that is the Blue Whale (Balaenoptera Musculus), not just that alone but also Indonesia
ocean habitat of sharks and rays of the world, there are 157 of 596 kinds which
can be found in Indonesia, including the endangered species that is a Whale Shark
(Rhicodon Typus) and Oceanic Manta
Rays (Manta Birostris). Types of
turtles at sea world can also be found in the sea of Indonesia, because there
are 6 of the 7 types of turtles, including the Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys Coriacea).

In addition to the fauna, there are
28,000 species of flora. Among them there are 2,600 species of coral reefs.
Amount that exceeds than the Red Sea Coral Reef. Coral reef are home to fish
breeding. A nice coral reef in a sea area of Indonesia can produce 3-10 tons of
fish km2 per year. Coral reefs and mangrove forests is contributing
approximately 60% of the fish food source of animal protein for the people of
Indonesia.

With
an area of maritim Indonesia and there are a variety of natural wealth in it,
sometimes it’s hard to keep an eye on what Indonesia sea adjoining the territory
of other countries. Moreover, many people are making use of the results of the
sea and were taken in a major way, we can see many human activities that may
harm the sea with the bomb, because that’s the very cause for concern when
there are many huge sea damage and could not imaginable. In addition to human
activity, natural disaster that could not have known when the occurrence. Maybe
the absence of a sea in Indonesia, human life will not run smoothly.

Therefore
the Nations as a private in accordance with the “Pancasila” already
we should be more loving and caring for ecosystems projects around the beach
and sea in Indonesia that sustainable and equitable.

 

1.2  Problem Identification

Based on the background that are written, the issue will be
discussed in this paper include:

1.     
How is the condition of the of Indonesia sea now?

2.     
What causes ocean Indonesia be destroyed?

3.     
How to cope with the crushed Indonesia sea conditions?

4.     
What is the Pancasila point of view about the condition
of Indonesia sea?

 

1.3  The Purpose

Problem formulation based on the above, the purpose of the
writing in this paper are as follows:

1.     
Find out the condition of the sea of Indonesia that is
happening now.

2.     
Find out the problem that caused the sea in Indonesia
being destroyed.

3.     
Knowing how to cope with the damage to the sea of
Indonesia.

4.     
Find out about the condition of the sea view of
Pancasila Indonesia.  

 

1.4  The Benefits

Term paper
writing is expected to provide benefits to everyone, among others:

1.     
For those readers can add general information about
ocean conditions in Indonesia and also the view of “Pancasila” on the
marine.

2.     
For the Government it can be used for criticism and
suggestions for overcoming Indonesia sea conditions of concern.

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

 

 

2.1  The Condition of The Indonesia Sea

Country
Indonesia is the midpoint of the Coral triangle region of the world which
includes the Philippines, Malaysia, East Timor, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands,
and Indonesia it self.  Not unexpectedly
turns out that Indonesia sea save a wealth of marine resources. Also as much as
17,506 islands of Indonesia are surrounded by 81,000 km of coastline with great
economic potential. Many resources (non renewable resources), such as petroleum,
natural gas, bauxite, tin, iron ore, manganese, phosphorus and other minerals
in the sea of Indonesia.

But in fact the current
Indonesia sea conditions are very poor, many coral reefs damaged happens
everywhere, illegal fishing is happening everywhere, as well as capture more
experienced (over-fishing) mainly in the waters around Java, Sumatra and
Sulawesi is partly a result of fishermen that accumulate around the area and
means of catching fish that are uneven where there are around 7000 foreign
ships operating in the sea of Indonesia. Illegal fishing in Indonesia reach
three to four million tons each year with a total loss of Rp 15 trillion to Rp
20 trillion.

Perhaps
a large number of human deeds directly or indirectly encourage ecosystem on the
extinction of fish species and destruction of the residences of various sea
life, such as the mangrove, seagrass and coral reefs.  The real condition of the coral reefs in the
sea of Indonesia at present is 41.78% in damaged condition, 28.30% in medium
condition, 23.72% and in good condition, and 6.2% were still in very good condition.
The face of fisheries and coral reefs of Indonesia.

Coral and fish supplies Indonesia
threatened by destructive fishing practices (destructive fishing), namely
fishing using explosives and poison potassium-cyanide has been prevalent in
many of the Islands in Indonesia, even in areas that are protected though. The
disadvantage of approximately 100,000 dollar per km2 for 20 years
and Indonesia has suffered losses amounting to 8.5 billion dollars.

The case mentioned above many result
in quite serious impact, for marine ecosystems in Indonesia. The Government has
already built the basic points along the beach at the outer position of the
leading Islands Marine limit rises, there is also some sea boundary agreement:
with India, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Australia.

The above facts suffice as the basis to improve the condition
of the seas of Indonesia as national development. Industries such as oil and
gas, transport, fisheries, and tourism accounted for 25% of Gross Domestic
Income (GDP) countries and 15% from the field work in Indonesia. Party
construction and the management of the immediate vicinity of the Sea also get
pressure politically to donate foreign exchange for Indonesia with the policies
already set.  The Sea also provided a
positive impact as marine energy, namely the energy waves, tides, wind, and
ocean thermal energy conversion.

World
Ocean day also set forth on 8 June. Minister of marine (Susi Pudjiastuti) already
firm and crack down on offenders who commit Illegal Fishing, “The policy
of scuttling foreign ships or by burning them directly available site aims to
make the effect of deterrent for foreign ships who come without permission, has
provoked a reaction among the neighboring countries”.(Siregar,
2016). Regulations that have already been
firmly established, stay the course management for managing coastal ecosystems
coastal and Ocean Management “principles should include efforts in
planning, utilization, maintenance, control, evaluation and restoration,
rehabilitation, development and conservation of the marine and coastal
environment “.(Samekto,
2016).

.

2.2  Causes Ocean Indonesia be Destroyed

1.     
Use of Explosives

Indonesia
is prone to sea-exposed fish bombing because it ships that operate not only
belong to the fishermen just Indonesia but also many fishermen from different
countries from outside the region like Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines,
Cambodia, East Timor, China and Thailand. As if it is hard to be stopped
because of lack of facilities such as fishing port that exists around the
outermost regions Indonesia sea.

Picture 1
Bombing Fish and Coral Reefs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.     
Dump into
The Sea

Because of the many trash on ground not often we find a lot
of trash into the sea as well, and the garbage that frequently encountered such
as plastic, bottles, even the rest of human food. In fact all types of waste
that can pollute sea water, the more it gets worse all that interfere with the
activity of marine life such as fish, turtles, seals or coral. A lot of sea
life that died because ate the junk that trashed us, coral reefs also destroyed
by garbage.

Picture 2
Dump into The Sea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.      Taking Coral Reefs

Most
people take with many coral reefs for sale because it is nice to be made into
decorating the home. But this is the wrong thing, coral reefs should be treated
so that the sea of Indonesia still have good conditions. But not a bit of coral
reef researchers also take to cultivated.

Picture 3
Illegal Taking Of Coral Reefs

 

 

 

 

4.     
Use Artificial Chemicals

Current
chemicals to catch fish much used, falling another cyanide poison (sodium cyanide), uses kerosene and
liquid chemical fertilizer, which dissolved in the sea water make dead fish.
But how to catch fish this is strictly prohibited, because it could damage the
marine ecosystem can also poison the fish whose flesh will we consume later.

Picture 4
Chemicals in the Waste into the sea

 

 

 

5.      Beach Reclamation

It
turns out that very much has many negative effects, including the decimation of
marine biota and habitats of plants so that the balance of the ecosystem is disrupted.
Marine pollution also occurs due to the activities of the reclamation area
around making a lot of dead fish.

Picture 5
Beach Reclamation Brings Bad Impacts

 

 

 

 

6.     
Legal Institutions

Institutions
are still weak whereas institutional role to address illegal fishing is very
important, but sometimes a man forget his role because blinded by
self-interest. “Fishing is of economic policy during this time tends to be
more in favour of fishery resource exploitation activities against resulting in
weak institutional management and law enforcement”.(Bambang & Bowo, 2002).

Picture 6
The weak Legal institutions

 

 

 

 

 

2.3  Solution for Crushed Indonesia Sea Conditions

Marine
ecosystems has many benefits for mankind. Preserving the oceans, will have an
impact on the balance of the ecosystem on Earth. As part of the Earth’s
ecosystems, maintaining the sustainability of the sea greatly in need. Because
of the sea as well as the one of the water sources, as well as a regulator of
temperature on Earth. How to preserve a sea include:

·        
Empowerment and Control Pollution at Sea

In
the empowerment of the marine environment of tourism, aquaculture, seaweed or
fish farming. Government’s role should be in advance so that the process of
empowerment it is running smoothly. To note also the waste generated is usually
dangerous and disruptive presence of biota. Therefore, before the waste is
disposed of must be processed, so is not endangering the oceans.

·        
Maintain An Attitude Of Love For The Marine
Environment.

It
should because the sea has an important role for life subjects, it needs to be
preserved in various ways such as: disposing of trash in its place, not
exploiting coral reefs and fish is excessive, catch fish with a friendly way
environment without wearing a tiger trawler or bombs that can ruin the beauty
of the sea.

·        
Do Mangrove Reclamation

Planting
mangroves along the coast is very important to prevent the occurrence of
abrasion, besides the mangrove forest is also the home of marine life such as
mangrove crabs breed, when it’s expanded and became much consumed also the same
man.

·        
Prevent The Wild Hunt

Increasing
age, consumption continued to rise and forcing the human being greedy to catch
marine life, and without realized the more endangered animals. We should care
more about the environment not only for the present but also for the future.

·        
Provides Penalties for Violators

The frequent occurrence of
damage to the sea makes the country take the role by giving call ads around the
coast to maintain the cleanliness of the sea, issued regulations that provide
heavy penalties to parties which violate good by giving sanctions as well as
the prison will make the offenders deterrent.

·        
Build a Nature Reserve Around The Beach

The
number of damage at sea prompted a lot of volunteers who care about the
environment to build nature reserves with government permission for the
preserve sea life are endangered and there are still many hiking, cultivating
coral reefs and sea life in order to multiply.

 

2.4  Pancasila
Point of View About The Condition of Indonesia Sea

Pancasila is the view of life
and the hallmark of the nation of Indonesia in the International world. The
values in the “Pancasila” also became a part of the history of
society and culture of Indonesia. But look at it from the word, supposedly as a
man virtuous who uphold Pancasila and the UUD 1945, we believe, can understand
and apply Pancasila in social changes, political, cultural and economic
circumstances in accordance with the Indonesia as a great nation.

Keep the sustainability of
the sea is also an important thing Indonesia, such as Koes Plus song (Kolam
Susu) “Indonesia was land-rich, our land land of heaven, a stick of rock
and wood so the plant”. We should be more concerned with the State of the
sea waters of Indonesia which can fulfill human life. According to me the 2nd
statement of Pancasila “Kemanusiaan
yang adil dan beradab” very precise, because by taking natural resources
fairly then it will balance the ecosystem at the moment and the future for our
posterity. The word “civilized” in the Pancasila also illustrates
that in managing the sea of Indonesia, reasonable limits to be appropriate and
should not violate the rules that have been made in the legal regulation of
Indonesia.

It
is also stipulated in (UU No. 32 Tahun
2014) About marine-related activities in the area of the ocean or sea
include the coastal areas and Islands, should be protected through conservation
of the sea, marine pollution control, prevention marine disasters, pollution,
and damage. Sometimes “in an effort of the management of the resource
potential of marine and fisheries, in addition to providing awareness of the
importance of the benefits of marine resources and fisheries to improve the
welfare of the community, also need to be instilled about philosophy in
managing the resource, it should approach the economic, ecological and social,
thus achieved a balance between exploitation and conservation “.(Lasabuda, 2013). From the quote above, we
realize that the importance of sea waters of Indonesia should be maintained in
accordance with the UUD 1945 and Pancasila has been regulated by the country of
Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER III

CLOSING

 

3.1  Conclusions and Suggestions

Really very pathetic this rich country,
all people do not realize how important it is one of the very useful resource
for life now and in the future. A rich resource which consists of many fish,
many beautiful coral reefs, as well as jewelry material that is the sea,
“Resources in the coastal area is the Sustainer of life for the people who
lived on the shore for food, firewood, building the other function, and
potential “. (Baransano & C. Mangimbulude, 2011).

Without we realize it turns the sea a lot
of damage, which occurs not only because of the damage by nature, but because
of the manner of a person’s hand is not responsible. Man who is never
satisfied, keep taking the entire resources at sea only to interest himself in
any way. Pick it up also the wrong way i.e. do the bombing and catching up with
the chemical, which is very dangerous and can ruin the beauty of nature.

In
fact we are living not for ourselves, but also for future generations that will
require resources from the sea for survival. Then, therefore, let us keep our
seas in various ways, among others, with little things such as throw away trash
in place, does not damage the habitat of marine life and coral reefs, namely
adhering to regulations to prevent damage worse yet. For the sake of the future
of Indonesia are friendly with nature and its wonderful anyway. But the
solutions above maximum can run if all parties get involved, either the
Government or the community. The hope with the good cooperation, then Indonesia
will prosper and be able to cope with the damages to marine ecosystems
throughout Indonesia at the moment and so on.

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

       I.           
Bambang, S., & Bowo, F. (2002). Dosen Fak. Hukum
Universitas Wahid Hasyim Alumni MIH UNDIP Nikijuluw, V.P.H. 2002. Rezim
Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Perikanan . Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Hukum QISTI 38. Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Hukum Qisti, 38–51.

   
II.           
Baransano, H. K., & C. Mangimbulude, J. (2011).
Eksploitasi dan Konservasi Sumberdaya Hayati Laut dan Pesisir di Indonesia. Biologi Papua, 3(1), 39–45.

 III.           
Lasabuda, R. (2013). Pembangunan Wilayah Pesisir Dan
Lautan  Dalam Perspektif Negara Kepulauan
Republik Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmiah Platax, 1(2), 92–101.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.11.209

 IV.           
Samekto, P. A. (2016). Permasalahan Pesisir dan Sumber Daya
Laut Manajemen di Indonesia. Jurnal Sains Dan Teknologi Maritim, XV.

   
V.           
Siregar, F. R. P. R. (2016). Kebijakan Kementerian Kelautan
Indonesia Dalam Kasus Pencurian Ikan Oleh Nelayan Malaysia Di Perairan Natuna
Indonesia Penulis.

 VI.           
http://bobo.grid.id/Sains/Iptek/Laut-Indonesia-Sumber-Kekayaan-Hayati-Dunia

VII.           
http://www.greenpeace.org/seasia/id/blog/menjaga-laut-kita/blog/44245/

VIII.           
http://ikanmania25.blogspot.co.id/2011/12/kondisi-laut-indonesia-semakin.html

 

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