Pneumatic systems provide a softer action and are also not
able to deliver such large forces. Besides the disadvantages pneumatic systems
have some advantages which are:

Simplicity of Design and Control

Machines are easily designed using standard cylinders &
other components. Control is as easy as it is simple ON-OFF type control.


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Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and
require very little maintenance. Because gas is compressible, the equipment is
less likely to be damaged by shock. The gas in pneumatics absorbs excessive
force, whereas the fluid of hydraulics directly transfers force.


Compressed Gas can be stored, allowing the use of machines
when electrical power is lost.


Very low chance of fire (compared to hydraulic oil).
Machines can be designed to be overload safe.

The process of the pneumatic system that is shown above:

The compressor receives filtered air form air filter and
delivers through an after-cooler to the compressed air receiver. Then the air is distributed to different applications as well
as the pneumatic cylinder. Pneumatic systems employ gas that is
compressed under extremely high pressure. For some applications where the air
must be perfectly dry, the system also contains a moisture separator. The
practical use of pneumatics comes in putting that compressed gas to use, at its
most basic level a pneumatic system holds compressed gas in a specially
designed tank and then we release some of that gas into an expandable chamber.
The expandable part of the chamber has a rod attached to it so that as it expands
the rod moves outward

Hydraulic actuation systems:

Air has a low density and is compressible at the same time
as hydraulic oil has a much higher density and is almost incompressible.
Therefore, hydraulic systems are capable to function at much-advanced pressure
and deliver the huge positive forces which are necessary for applications such
as hydraulic presses and lifts. Hydraulic actuation system has advantages which
are listed below:

Advantages of hydraulics

Liquid (as a gas is also a ‘fluid’) does not absorb any of
the supplied energy.

Capable of moving much higher loads
and providing much higher forces due to the incompressibility.

The hydraulic working fluid is
basically incompressible, leading to a minimum of spring action. When
the hydraulic fluid flow is stopped, the slightest motion of the load releases
the pressure on the load; there is no need to “bleed off” pressurized
air to release the pressure on the load.

The process of the Hydraulic actuation systems that is shown

The system has a motor-driven pump which draws filtered oil
from the tank and distributes it through a pressure regulator to the positions
where it is necessary. The pump runs constantly and the
excess oil which is not necessary for procedures is diverted back to the tank
by the pressure regulator. It must be noted that the organization generally
supplies a relatively little work area in the locality of the pump and tank.
It is not realistic to provide oil under pressure over large distances for the
reason that of pressure drop and the need for a return pipe. A manual or
automatic control valve supplies oil to the actuation cylinder and directs
return oil to the reservoir.

A mechanical handling system:

The transfer of material, components and assemblies through
the manufacturing stages often takes a position on roller or belt conveyors.

Mechanical handling has a broad variety of handling. Lifting
gear used in developing business is broad and in some cases, it is extremely

The roller conveyor is most expected the easiest form where
manufactured goods are passed among workstations along a track having rollers.
Materials are regularly shifted through a motor-driven belts conveyer. The
belts are from frequently maintained on the concave roller so that falls in the


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