The animal waste and kitchen waste including some amount of leaves were mixed into the compost heap. Addition of daily generated waste was done in the same heap. Overturning of the compost pile was done in every 3 months for smooth decomposition. At the simplest level, the process of composting simply requires making a heap of wetted organic matter (leaves, “green” food waste, dung etc. ) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of weeks or months.
Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture. Worms and fungi further break up the material. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant-nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification. Compost can be rich in nutrients. It is used in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, and agriculture. The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil. In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation, and wetland construction.
Organic ingredients intended for composting can alternatively be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion Vermicomposting Vermicompostng, also known as worm composting, is the process of breaking down organic scraps by means of worms. Vermicomposting or vermiculture is derived from the Latin word “Vermis” means worms (not all kinds of worms though). In a Process red wiggler worms are often preferred for this kind of composting. Vermicomposting is a technique in which worms are used to decompose organic waste.
Vermicompost is a mixture of decomposing food, bedding and worm castings. When worms eat organic waste, it is excreted in the form of nutrient rich fertilizers called Vermicompost. This is the best forms of organic fertilizer. Such fertilizer can be used in our field, garden, nurseries, etc for maintaining soil fertility, for better yield of crops and vegetables in our field. A simple box or a container makes a fine worm bin and keep worms and decomposing food scraps in one area.
Vermicompost is important because it produces more fertile soil amendments. The worm bin can be kept indoors or out, depending on our needs and preferences and may be fed most of the non-meat food scraps. They require very little attention. In addition, red worms (Eisenia foetida) are voracious eaters that are extremely happy to spend the day eating organic waste, excreting worm castings and making more worms, providing high quality compost. Thus, in a few months red worms will have turned the food scraps into Vermicompost.
These worms’ help to turn organic wastes into a nutrient rich substance called vermicompost. This is the process by which Decayed organic matter is eaten by a mix of bacteria inside the bodies of earthworms to convert waste to a soil like excretion of vermin-casting full of microbes use full to farmers. Earthworms are not pest like caterpillar and do not eat fresh food wastes. There are two stages of the vermicompsting: initial decomposition of the waste and only later conversion by earthworms (Shrestha, 2005).