Periodontitisis a prevalent multifactorial inflammatory condition characterised by loss ofsupporting periodontium and aggressive destruction of gingival tissues.
Factorsaffecting periodontal health are malnutrition, oral hygiene, genetic and epigeneticfactors, systemic health, and nutrition etc. It is caused when host resistanceis reduced and the virulence factor of an organism is increased resulting inperiodontitis. Deficiency of vitamins cause periodontal destruction, though theexact mechanism is still unknown. Vitamin deficiency may affect any of thebasic periodontal defence factors such as the integrity of the dentogingivalbarrier and the turnover of its constituent cells.
Therefore, nutritionalimbalance throughout the life cycle can impair healing and tissur regeneration leadingto increase susceptibility to oral infections . TheB-complex vitamins are involved cell production, repair and regeneration. They arequintessential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. This makes them important forthe production of new cells for tissue formation and maintainance.
The most common symptoms found in Vit B12deficiency is Glossitis ( Inflammation of tongue) and Glossalgia (A burning or painful sensation in the tongue. Also called glossodynia).Vitamin B deficiency causes loss of theintegrity of the oral mucosa.
The oralmanifestations of the loss of integrity include pale mucosa , eryethematouspatches, candidiasis, angular cheilitis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis ,glossitisand a burning mouth. Vitamin B 12 is notderived from plants or animals, they are produced by small microorganisms like yeast,fungi and molds They have various synonyms like cobrynamide, cobamide, cyanocobalamin,cobinamide, aquocobalamin, cobalamin, , hydroxcobalamin, and nitrotocobalamin.. VitaminB12 requires a substance called ‘ Intrinsic factor’ for its entery into theGastro – Intestinal Tract .
IF is an unique protein which helps vitamin B12reach rest of the body by facilitating its transport across stomach and theintestines.