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The three main branches of administration in the Ottoman and in the Safavid Empires were one military, two religious, and three bureaucratic. There were many different laws and rules as well as different forms of punishment consequences. It was stated that in the beginning there was no defining distinction in the ruling establishment between that of the military and the civilian officers. Both the military and civilian officers were considered to be apart of the monarch’s household. As far as the military branch the Ottomans were said to have outnumbered the Safavid’s military. The Ottomans were known to be a lot more advanced in the artillery area compared to the branch that of the Safavid Empire. The Safavid’s had spears, bows and swords where as the Ottoman Empire was more advanced in technology and weapons as they had new technology of guns etc. The Ottoman Empire had the best military training. 
In the military branch there were two parts to it; the warriors and the civilians. It was also said that once one became too old and weak to fight they were then transitioned from military to civilian. Once transitioned to civilian they worked on creating documents, making copies and just plenty of paper work. There was believed to have been corruption in their administration therefore the civilians jobs were important as they kept double documentation of paperwork. It was described in the textbook The Middle East a History that the functions of the religious agents was to go and try to take control or begin to take advantage of economical distress. Religion is an important factor and serves a function to the administration as it is how they were able to gain its large amount of members. This also led to the Ottoman Empire’s over powering stance against the Safavid’s when they faced off against each other. 

Question #3:   Please discuss how the Shia sect of Islam evolved after the collapse of the Safevid Empire and what the long-term implications of this evolution were.

There were many long term implications of the evolution of the Shia sect of Islam after the collapse of the Safavid Empire all of which were drastic. The quality of the Shahs had declined infinitely as well as the weakened powers the central government had over distant regions. The economy of the Shia sect of Islam decreased in value as many trade ports were no longer making good business due to the increase in foreign competition. Trade revenues began to drop drastically. The plague also was an implication in which killed thousands of people. Many productions began to decrease such as the production of silk. Inconveniences such as the highly expensive price of transporting bulky goods began to effect some areas as they had over whelming amounts of whole grains. The military began to go downhill as the government began taking away coinage from the military in order for one half to be able to be given to the royal family. 
One of the most important implications was that the amount of tribal calvary soldiers began to drop immensely leading them to become far less effective, this was also due to cuts being made from these soldiers and the cavalry as well. 
One of the long term impacts that occurred after the collapse of the Safavid Empire was that the Shia sect of Islam now had to deal with stronger political powers. 
The Portuguese entered the Red sea enabling the Shia to travel to other Muslim cities. This overall began to start problems and issues for that of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans began years of long wars against them that initially over take them. Another aspect that is impacted are the resources. The resources are drained until there are inevitably no more leading to the loss of control and overall land. 

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Question #4: Please explain the main teachings of Wahhabism and major differences between Wahhabism and mainstream Islam. Make sure to cover the causes of these differences.

There are quiet a few differences between Wahhabism and mainstream Islam. The major differences would first off be their overall beliefs as well as how they practice those beliefs as far as their rituals. The Wahhabis all in all believe in the fact that the Prophet Muhammad should only be praised in the form of a human being. Whereas mainstream Islam practice praise towards the Prophet of Islam in many different aspects. The Wahhabis were known to emphasize that of the unity of God. Another one of the differences between the Wahhabis and the mainstream Islam is that the Wahhabis mission was to try to change their practices back to that of the early umma in Medina. It was said that the Wahhabis were against many of the beliefs of the mainstream Islam such as their “innovations in the faith such as Sufi orders” To the Wahhabis the Ottomans were seen as enemies to that of the true Islam. 
The teachings that of the mainstream Islam believed in different things compared to the Wahhabis such as intercession as well as mysticism. For this the Wahhabis frowned down upon them seeing them in their eyes as wrong innovations to that of Islam. 
Wahhabis follow teachings of Sheikh’s where as those of mainstream Islam follow teachings of Islamic jurisprudence. 
The Wahhabis also believe in performing other tasks such as visiting graves or saints shrines, however the Wahhabis do not call, acknowledge or celebrate occasions such as the events of the Prophet Muhammed’s date of birth or festivals. Another difference between the Wahhabis and those of mainstream Islam is that the mainstream Islam believes in healing powers. The causes of the main differences between these two groups, the Wahhabis and the people of mainstream Islam is that the Wahhabis are much more traditional. Mainstream Islam seems to have evolved over time as well as changed many of their views, beliefs and practices. 

Question #7: What was the impact of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution on the Ottoman Empire in particular and the Middle East in general?

There was a very large impact following the Enlightenment and the French Revolution on the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. One of the first impacts was a long period of constant war between the rise of the Greeks and the Ottomans. This caused much destruction and struggle. The French Revolution of 1789 helped lead to the rise of the Greeks and their nationalism with the help of the organization of much of Europe as well as other nationalists. The entire idea of the French Revolution was to recreate as well as mimic ideas and ways that of the ancient Greeks. This meant a lot of negative impacts coming towards the people of the Ottoman Empire. During the eighteenth century the overall Ottoman Empire as well as its military rule had began to decrease as the Greeks had begun to rise. The Greeks began to become familiar with many new technology and military weapons. The impact the Enlightenment and the French Revolution also had on the Ottoman Empire as well as Middle East in general was that they gathered many groups of warriors to begin the take over the Ottoman Empire. Once the Ottoman Empire began to fall the people of the Ottoman Empire were massacred as well as butchered or they surrendered at the hand of the swords of the Greeks. The Turks population decreased at accelerating rates. The impacts of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution were all around ruthless. Even Ottoman soldiers surrendered themselves to those of Athens for in exchange their lives would be spared, however this was not the case and their lives were taken. In general the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East went downhill and were over thrown by the movement of the French Revolution. Therefore the overall impact was drastically negative for the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. 


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