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A place where most of the local school students must have attended; a place where students can practice more on their school works and get help with their homework; a place where it trains its students to meet particular goals such as achieving good marks or passing certain degree examination. It is cram school, also known as the after school tutoring program, in which it causes student have less time to spend with and alters the purpose of learning. In this literature review, I will be further elaborating on how are these books related to and how each of the book contradicts, supports, and proves my thesis statement: attending to cram school causes students having limited spare time with their family and in person social.

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In the book, Education Fever: Society, Politics, and the Pursuit of Schooling in South Korea, the author Michael Seth evaluates the South Korea education and examination preparation. Seth first introduces how Korea has changed from “a nation where a majority of the population had no formal education”(p.108) to “one with some of the world’s highest rates of literacy, high school graduates, and university students,”(p.149) then therefore provides useful information concerning an exceptionally successful education transformation in Korea.

The book Education Fever first depicts the fact that the education in South Korea has a highly competitive system, but later it states that the education systems, however, brings an unexpected negative effect on students that the highly competitive examination system and rising aspirations are often blamed. As mentioned in the book, South Korea’s passion for education has started all the way from the late 1300s to the early 1900s. For those who passed a civil-service exam could gain entry to the privileged yang-ban class, an academic aristocracy. After few years of the Korea War, the government started encouraging people for accessing to higher education.

However, the education obsession is now all consuming that the South Korean government has unsuccessfully tried to control it. “The Korean education system puts enormous pressure on children… the only way to opt out of the system is not to have children. It is so expensive to educate a child that it is undoubtedly a factor in South Korea’s very low birth rate,” (p.31) Seth tries to argue that the South Korean government believes the “education obsession” is damaging the society itself that education has helped push the household debt to its limits. 

At this point, the book supports the fact that students are having too much pressure on different levels of entrance exams and spending too much time on academic performance, which turns out that education is gaining from student’s academic pressure to family’s economic pressure. As mentioned in the book, education and examination have put tremendous pressure on the students; as a result, the only way to solve this problem is not to have children: in sakes of not letting their kids having too much pressure and economic issues.  

Irrespective of these points, Education Fever presents a critical and complex set of issues in South Korea’s history with real verve. The book is particularly useful for its integrated presentation of Korea’s development, and, in this respect, has the potential to attract not only historians, but also audiences from education, economics, political science, and sociology. For those entering one of these related areas of study, numerous prospects for future research exist
Another book called “Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Dragon?”, the author Yong Zhao, also an education expert, depicts his own experience comparing both Western and Eastern education system and allowing him to write about cross-cultural perspectives on different kinds of education. 
Similar to Education Fever, the book primarily focuses on responding to western envy on China’s PISA (the Programme for International Student Assessment) results and critiquing on China’s ferocious education systems and examinations, but Zhou later argues that although many countries may admire China’s educations and the results of academic performances, but system itself will ultimately fail based on its political system.  

Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Dragon? begins with an argument that, “why Americans should look at reform rather than adopting ones model of education.”(p.9) Zhao claims that China’s top-ranking PISA scores shouldn’t be mistaken as the evidence of the superiority of its educational system. the myth of Chinese educational system superiority, making a convincing case to the West that gaokao-intensity-level testing and seductive, but uninformative PISA results are not a road map to 21st century success