On the other hand, Capozzi (2017) stated that companies face severaldisadvantages if their employees are unmotivated. These include high turnover,reduced productivity, poor performance, decreased revenue, poor customerservice and so on.
Motivation is essentially about commitment to doing something. A well-motivated workforce canprovide several benefits such as lower absenteeism levels as the employees arecontent with their working lives, lower levels of staff turnover (the number ofemployees leaving the business) which leads to lower training and recruitmentcosts as well as improved industrial relations with trade unions. Contentedworkers give the firm a good reputation and motivated employees are likely toimprove product quality, or the customer service associated with a product.
Thiscan lead to increased employee performance and better productivity (amountproduced per employee) which can result in lower unit costs of production andso enable a firm to sell its product at a lower price (Riley, 2009). According to Meeajan (2012), there are also financial motivationalstrategies like piece rates, times rates, commission and performance-relatedpay as well as non-financial motivational strategies such as job enlargement,job enrichment, job rotation and team working. Frederick Herzberg approached the question of motivation in adifferent way.
Herzberg concluded that aspects of the work environment thatsatisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them. Herzberglabelled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers as “hygiene” factorsbecause these factors were part of the context in which the job was performed,as opposed to the job itself. In contrast, motivators are factors that areintrinsic to the job. Motivators are the conditions that truly encourageemployees to try harder. The theory can be a valuable aid to managers becauseit points out that improving the environment in which the job is performed goesonly so far in motivating employees (Bauer and Erdogan 2012).
There are several theories explaining the concept of motivation. Theearliest studies of motivation involved an examination of individual needs. Twotheories may be placed under this category: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs andHerzberg’s two factor theory. Maslow’s theory is based on a simple premise:human beings have needs that are hierarchically ranked. The most basis ofMaslow’s needs are physiological needs, then safety needs followed by socialneeds. On the next level up, esteem needs, and lastly self-actualisation needs.
Once a lower level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator. Thishierarchy is a systematic way of thinking about the different needs employeesmay have at any given point (Bauer and Erdogan, 2012). Flanagan and Ruden (2008) statedthat conflict lowers the motivation level of employees and the motivationamongst team members. Daft (2011, p.
200) defines motivation as “the forceseither internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistenceto pursue certain course of action.” At Double C Technologies, according to the employees, the managersbarely focus on resolving conflict between workers. The only time they manageconflict is when conflicting parties start personally attacking each other.This demotivates the employees as they don’t feel encouraged to do their job. According to Bergman and Volkema (1989) one of the most commonoutcomes of conflict is that it upsets parties.
However, conflict canhave both functional and dysfunctional consequences. On the positive side,conflict can result in greater creativity or better decisions. On the otherhand, conflict can be negative if it is excessive or involves personal attacksor underhanded tactics. Some triggers that also result in conflict are organizational changes,personality clashes, workloads, and stress (Hayes, 2008). Unfortunately, thepreviously mentioned causes of conflict are present at Double C Technologies.There are several common causes of conflict (Beckwith, 2016).
Gibson,Ivancevich and Donnelly (1994) identified some of the factors that can causeconflict between individuals and groups at the workplace which includeddifferences in goals and perceptions, limited resources, unfair treatment, lackof common understanding, poor communication skills as well as leadershipmanagement aspect. According to Stoner and Freeman (1992), a conflict can be defined as adisagreement between two or more parties with perceived incompatible goals orinterests. Conflict situations are inevitable in organisations (Mashanne andGlinow, 2008). Employee conflicts in the workplace is a common occurrenceresulting from differences in employees’ personalities and values (Johnson,2011).