theories are  guides that help to explain
and navigate the nursing profession. There are 3 distint types of nursing
theories: Grand theories, mid-range theories and micro-range theories. These
look at nursing from a broad perspective and are applicable to all areas of the
profession (Blais & Hayes, 2016). Grand theories can provide useful date in
the nursing practice but are very broad. The second type of theory is middle
range theory. These focus more narrowly on specific aspects of the profession (pg.
101). They bridge the gap between Grand Theories and Micro-range theories. Micro-range
theory is a series of concepts that can explain in the confines of the nursing
profession and research.  These types are
theories are very specific, and are called nursing practice theories, because they
relate to the profession of nursing (pg. 101). In this paper I will be going
over each theory and giving an example for each.

The grand theory is a very broad
theory that includes many general concepts can that can be linked to all areas
of the nursing profession. It is very general in nature (pg. 101).  One example of a Grand theory is Florence
Nightingale’s Environmental theory (pg. 102).The Environmental Theory completely changed nursing. Florence Nightingale was a nurse
during the 1800s. she accompanied soldier into the battlefield during the Crimean
war. During her thime there caring for the injuried, She noted that there was a
connection between the deaths of the soldiers and the environmental conditions
that they were in (Petiprin, 2016). Because of these observations, the Environmental
theory was created. There were five different factors that were tied to health
and environment: 1. clean air, 2. clean water, 3. efficient drainage, 4. Light,
5. Cleanliness.  The reason why this can
be considered a Grand theory is because it can be applied to all areas of
nursing and heath care.

The second type
of theories that I will discuss is middle-range theories. Middle-range theories
are not as complex as their information is much more limited. This theory is
not as broad as the grand theories. An example of a middle-range theory is
Hildegard Peplau’s theory of Interpersonal Relations model. There are four
different parts this theory: orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution
(Petiprin, 2016). This is a good example of a middle range theory because it is
limited to the nurse’s behavior and purpose. It is mainly used in Behavioral
health and psychiatric scenarios (Blais & Hayes, 2016).

The third type
of nursing theory is Micro-range theory, also known as the nursing practice
theory, because it mainly focuses on nursing practice. An excellent example of
this theory is Patricia Benner’s “Novice to Expert” model. In this theory, she
explains that the nurse develop skills and an
understanding of caring for patients from a mixture of knowledge and
experience. This theory recognizes 5 levels in a nurse’s career: Novice,
Advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert. As the nurse gains more
experience through hands on training in a clinical setting, 

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In my own career as a psychiatric
nurse, I believe that I use Hildegard Peplau’s the most. Hildegard Peplau’s
theory would test every psychiatric nurse to provide care through continued
commitment to the importance of the nurse-patient relationship, and also involvement
in evidenced-based practice.


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