Nanoemulsion iscolloidal particulate system and a thermodynamic stable biphasic system of onephase dispersed in the other phase with a minute droplets of less than 140 nmwhich is stabilized by emulsifying agents (surfactants and cosurfactants). Itact as a carrier of drug molecules which is in the shape of a solid sphere witha lipophilic surface of a negative charge. Acting as a drug delivery system itenhances the therapeutic efficacy and minimize toxic reactions and adverseeffect of a drug. Nanoemulsions are oil/water or water/oil dispersions that aretransparent because of their small size. They can be one of three forms: (a) ananoemulsion that is water in oil in which water is dispersed in the continuousoil phase, (b) a nanoemulsion that is oil in water where oil is dispersed inthe continuous aqueos phase and (c) a bi-continuous nanoemulsions. Amongadvantages of nanoemulsion are: improve bioavailability of a drug, solubilizelipophilic drug, formed with less amount of enegry, greater absorption becauseof being of small size droplets, physical stability, non-irritant, non-toxic (Jaiswal etal.
, 2015). The vaginalinfections are so high in prevalence that they are the most reason why womenseek medical consultation. Their symptoms effect quality of life of womenpatients (Palmeira-de-Oliveira et al., 2015). Vaginalinfections can be caused by bacteria or protozoa or yeast.
Vaginal candidiasiswhich is a yeast infection is the most common organism causing vaginalinfections in women. Vaginal drug delivery include a variety of dosage formssuch as capsules, tablets, pessaries and semi solids. The most commonly usedsemi solid vaginal preperations include ointments, creams and gels.
Treatmentof vaginal problems locally has been practiced since ancient times. Ideal drugdelivery to vagina must be easy to use, painless, cost effective, available,allow for self-administration with no interference with daily life and bodyfunctioning. Local vaginal treatment has many advantages over oral approachesbecause of the higher drug concentrations at the local site and fewer drug-druginteractions and interference with gastrointestinal tract, avoidance of thehepatic first-pass metabolism. And also has many advantages over parental routein that it is free of pain, possible infection and tissue damage.
Gels areconsidered the most preferred semisolids because they spread easily over thesurface are of the vagina, because of their high content of water they providethe vaginal area with moisture and lubrication effects that alleviate symptomsthat come with vaginal dryness (Alexander etal., 2004) (Das Neves and Bahia, 2006). Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira and Paulo Duartehave done an online questionnaire, they found that most women preferredsemisolid over other solid dosage forms. Conventional Vaginal dosage forms still have some limitationsmsuch as low residence time