Nanoemulsion is
colloidal particulate system and a thermodynamic stable biphasic system of one
phase dispersed in the other phase with a minute droplets of less than 140 nm
which is stabilized by emulsifying agents (surfactants and cosurfactants). It
act as a carrier of drug molecules which is in the shape of a solid sphere with
a lipophilic surface of a negative charge. Acting as a drug delivery system it
enhances the therapeutic efficacy and minimize toxic reactions and adverse
effect of a drug. Nanoemulsions are oil/water or water/oil dispersions that are
transparent because of their small size. They can be one of three forms: (a) a
nanoemulsion that is water in oil in which water is dispersed in the continuous
oil phase, (b) a nanoemulsion that is oil in water where oil is dispersed in
the continuous aqueos phase and (c) a bi-continuous nanoemulsions. Among
advantages of nanoemulsion are: improve bioavailability of a drug, solubilize
lipophilic drug, formed with less amount of enegry, greater absorption because
of being of small size droplets, physical stability, non-irritant, non-toxic (Jaiswal et
al., 2015).

The vaginal
infections are so high in prevalence that they are the most reason why women
seek medical consultation. Their symptoms effect quality of life of women
patients (Palmeira-de-Oliveira et al., 2015). Vaginal
infections can be caused by bacteria or protozoa or yeast. Vaginal candidiasis
which is a yeast infection is the most common organism causing vaginal
infections in women. Vaginal drug delivery include a variety of dosage forms
such as capsules, tablets, pessaries and semi solids. The most commonly used
semi solid vaginal preperations include ointments, creams and gels. Treatment
of vaginal problems locally has been practiced since ancient times. Ideal drug
delivery to vagina must be easy to use, painless, cost effective, available,
allow for self-administration with no interference with daily life and body
functioning. Local vaginal treatment has many advantages over oral approaches
because of the higher drug concentrations at the local site and fewer drug-drug
interactions and interference with gastrointestinal tract, avoidance of the
hepatic first-pass metabolism. And also has many advantages over parental route
in that it is free of pain, possible infection and tissue damage. Gels are
considered the most preferred semisolids because they spread easily over the
surface are of the vagina, because of their high content of water they provide
the vaginal area with moisture and lubrication effects that alleviate symptoms
that come with vaginal dryness (Alexander et
al., 2004) (Das Neves and Bahia, 2006). Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira and Paulo Duarte
have done an online questionnaire, they found that most women preferred
semisolid over other solid dosage forms. Conventional Vaginal dosage forms still have some limitationsm
such as low residence time

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