In scientific terms, motion is a slow or sudden change of position of an object relative to other objects in its surroundings (Arizona Board of Regents, 1997). This is a physical condition which involves the change with respect to time considerations (Arizona Board of Regents, 1997). Motion can be measured using the principle of speed. This is the length of time taken for a particular object to move from one place to another and is calculated with the variables distance and time (Cordero-Navaza, 1996).

The procedure of calculation divides the distance traveled by an object by the amount of time it has taken to complete the travel (Cordero-Navaza, 1996). The basic measurement unit of speed is in meters per second but can also designate larger parameters like kilometers per hour or miles per hour (Cordero-Navaza, 1996). Motion can also be measured using the principles of velocity and acceleration (Western Washington University, 2005). Velocity is actually a variation of speed only that it considers the frame of direction where the object of interest is going (Western Washington University, 2005).

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Acceleration on the other hand measures how fast a change in speed occurs in an observed motion. Therefore, the basic unit measurement of acceleration is in terms of distance over the square of a time frame (Western Washington University, 2005). There are three laws of motion presented by Isaac Newton. The first law is the Law of Inertia (Cordero-Navaza, 1996). This means that in order to make an object move, an external action should be applied to it. This is also the same when stopping a moving object. Necessary force must be applied to halt the object from taking further distance or displacement (Cordero-Navaza, 1996).

The second law is the Law of Acceleration which states that the rate of change in motion of a certain object is proportional to the external force applied to it (Cordero-Navaza, 1996). Moreover, the acceleration of a moving object is inversely proportional to its mass (Cordero-Navaza, 1996). The Law of Interaction is the third law which states that for every action, there is an equal reaction in an opposite direction (Cordero-Navaza, 1996). For example, a gun being fired will let the bullet move in a certain direction while the gun itself recoils backward in an opposite direction with respect to the bullet.