Most the NCC. Binocular rivalry task is the

Mosttraditional research into consciousness uses a report-based paradigm i.e.subject’s reports of perceiving a stimulus asevidence of consciousness. However, trying to extract information about theneural correlates of consciousness from such information can be difficult andhas many confounds. The primary issue with this method is that the neuralcircuitry used to report an experience will be interpreted as a part of theneural correlate of consciousness (NCC) (Tsuchiya et al, “No-Report”).

Thisresults in an overestimation of the NCC (Tsuchiya et al, “No-Report”). Additionally, many othermechanisms work together to allow a subject to report a change in theirperception, including attention, working memory, or expectation (Tsuchiya etal, “No-Report”). Therefore, someresearchers try to find a way to study consciousness without asking a subjectto report when they are consciously aware of the stimulus. This method ofstudying consciousness is called a no-report paradigm. A stumbling block inusing no-report paradigms is how to actually find evidence of consciousperception without a subject reporting their experience to the researchers.Tuschiya et al demonstrate that it is possible to use eye movement, pupil size,memory-based reports, or nonverbal reporting measures as a substitute forreporting perception of a stimulus.

So, such measures will be used to time theneural response to see when the activity in the brain corresponds to consciousperception.            There is scientific evidence thatno-report paradigms probably help in eliminating the overestimation of the NCC.Binocular rivalry task is the most common type of task used to studyconsciousness. When two conflicting stimuli are presented to the two eyessimultaneously, perception switches every few seconds. Although both images areseen, only one is consciously perceived at any particular moment in time. Abinocular rivalry task is typically done under a report paradigm where subjectsreport every time their perception changes. Compared to a control conditionwhere no conflicting stimuli are shown, one can find the difference in brain activitybetween the two conditions which is likely associated with the switches ofperception.

Tushiya et al mention two experiments that show that in binocularrivalry tasks, using a no-report paradigm results in different areas of thebrain being activated as part of conscious perception. Typically, frontoparietal activationis seen in report paradigms with binocular rivalry tasks. However, in thestudies under no-report paradigms, frontoparietal activation is not differentbetween both conditions. Therefore, it is possible that the frontoparietalactivation observed is actually an overestimation of the NCC.

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Additionally, TMSand lesions to the frontal lobes did not affect conscious perception.

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