Most of the participants think thatusing prohibited substances is considered a kind of fraud and deceit. Thisconsistent with French study which displayed that 90 % ofelitestudent athletes were considered doping a kind of dishonest (Peretti-Watel et al.
2004). While thispercent is higher than that reported by others (30.2 %) (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). It could beargued that students are aware of the fact that the use of banned substancesconsiders cheating, and that could reflect their anti-doping attitudes.However, it looks that there is a considerable difference between what they sayand what they really think, which is considered a major limitation (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). Knowledge about doping andwelcoming for education Less than one third of the studiedpopulation indicated that they had heard of the IOC/WADA list of bannedsubstances. High percent of them failed to mention a drug in the banned listalthough they indicated yes. This was consistent with previous survey which wasperformed on athletes from four countries (Australia, Canada, the UK and theUS) and declared that only about one third (35%) identified correctly thestatus of substances on the prohibited list (Mottram et al.
2008). While otherstudies recorded high percent in this regard (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). Although more than two thirdreported that they are aware about world anti-doping program, less than onethird could mention the role of this program. While other study was performedon Saudi players denoted that (56%) are aware that there is some worldanti-doping program to support athletes (Al Ghobain et al. 2016). With focusing on these results, it hasto raise the alarm to provide those students such important knowledge as earlyas possible. This could highlight the importance of early integration of suchknowledge in their curriculum with providence of regular updated lists ofbanned substances, acceptable medicines and supplements.
Effective educationalstrategy should include open discussion and consultation from well educatedperson. Consideration of open discussions is important to accommodate forspecific individual questions during education with acceptance of individualconsultations even on dietary supplement use (Erdman et al. 2007; De Hon et al. 2011). Genderdifferences should be also considered. The optimal education has to be based onboth ethics and science (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). This came inline with opinions of most of the students (>90%) in the present studyregarding the importance of knowledge about doping to physical educationstudents in their career and general life. Reasons of use & Beliefsregarding doping One of the most priorities of WADAis a better understanding of the causes of doping behavior (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013).
In the presentstudy, the most frequently chosen reason for doping was the considerablepressure on the athlete by expectations of others and even society itself.Around 14.8% of respondents in the present study believed that using of dopingsubstances are efficacious in improving performance and considered the reasonbehind the usage. Other studies reported that most common reasons were toincrease performance, social recognition and achieve athletic success (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). This came inline with the opinions of students who reported self doping use. Overall, the motives for using prohibitedsubstances were sorted into two main categories.
The first category highlightsphysiological aspects (for example: increasing endurance, strength, removingtiredness, injury and/or lack of training). The second category integrates thepsycho-sociological elements, such as achieving external goods, societalexpectation, pressure to win, and personal desire to be acknowledged (Petróczi and Aidman 2009). Alternatively,it is important to draw attention that doping may be introduced outside thesphere of competitive sport by trained physically fit persons (Pedersen 2010) as mentioned bysome students (5%) in the present study.
Another important example, it mayinvolve drug abuse without the intent of performance enhancement just as anynon-athlete may (Reardon and Creado 2014). The majority of students in thepresent study (85.1%) are considered doping use as a form of addiction. Thisresult was in the same direction of other studies which also considered it aspublic health problem (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). In terms ofhealth consequences, most of students reported that using doping substanceshave negative health consequences. This percentage was very close to others whodisplayed that doping is unhealthy and pose a risk to health and their use isagainst the ethical spirit of sport (Mottram et al.
2008; Peretti-Watel et al. 2004). On the otherhand, this result is higher than others (74%, 36.7%) (Al Ghobain et al. 2016; Morente-Sánchez and Zabala2013). It was stated that comparisonsbetween elite athletes and general populations, or even between athletes indifferent types of sports, should be made with caution because elite athleteshave different objectives, motivations, knowledge, necessities, pressures, andother external stressors placed on elite athletes, which could lead them tobehave in a different ways (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). In this study, opinion ofrespondents was to some extent split in regard with doping by some of thecurrent top athletes. That is inconsistent with results of previous study inwhich all the participants believe that some of the current top athletes weretaking some sort of banned substances.
This could reflect a negative perceptionabout top sports in this young group. This has a significant impact on theirmotivation and their future careers (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). Interestingly, the second most common causefor using banned substances in the present study was the belief that others usethe same or similar substances.
In this context,athletes who have similar belief are more likely to begin using them too, whichcould start a vicious cycle that propagates the pro-doping culture. Sosurrounding people must be very cautious about false consensus effect whentalking about doping and prevent exaggeration of the supposed use of bannedsubstance among those who achieve success (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). Attitudes towards doping controland testing In the present study, more than onethird think that current doping controls cannot detect the athletes who tookdope.
While more than half of the students confirm that there is a way todeceive the doping control tests. Similar results were also obtained by otherauthors (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). On the otherhand, higher results were obtained from elite athletes (Alaranta et al.
2006). These resultssuggest that there is no trust among students about the reliability ofanti-doping controls and their application (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). Fromprevention point of view, the only way to truly minimize the doping culture andcases on middle to long term is education. The education is needed to correctand stabilize attitudes towards doping at an early stage of an athlete’scareer. It has to educate athletes how to psychologically resist any pressureto engage in doping, even among current or past user. It also enables them tomake informed decisions concerning any drug use (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013).
Sports and doping scandals The doping status in many sportshas been examined in several studies. In the present study, the most infectedsports by doping were related to athletics and Judo. This is consistent withmost of previous studies’ results as athletics took first place (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013; Pavlovi? andIdrizovi? 2013). The leastmarked sports with doping scandals in the present study were related toswimming, football, then fencing. While in other study the most responses wererelated to sports games, archery, and tennis (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013).
It was reported that any anonymousself-reported questionnaires even with psychometric testing could have limitedscientific reliability. The data collected using self-report questionnairesshould be interpreted with caution because the answers may be intentionallyfalse as the respondents may not wish to expose that they or their team matesuse drugs, even under the guarantee of anonymity and confidentiality (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). Inconclusion, the results ofpresent study provide a preliminary data about attitudes, beliefs and knowledgeof a group from physical education students toward doping to understand theproblem in this locality and consequently help in prevention of doping inrespect to their culture and locality. The prevalence among students in thepresent study is minimal but it is significantly high among surroundingpeoples. The most of student have anti-doping attitudes but there is a shortagein their knowledge.
They believe in the importance of such knowledge especiallyfor their specialty. They suggest doping use mostly owing to cause ofpsycho-sociological element while group of personal doing use reported thatmainly due to a very strong desire to achieve the best results . Most of them do not have trusttoward doping control and testing with blurred belief concerning top athletes.
Early integration of effective educational updated courses about doping isrecommended to protect them from false knowledge that could receive from nonprofessional person. As providing true knowledgeis valuable and important for the vitality and maturity of their belief andattitude which shape their ideas and minds. The outcome affects them andsociety as a whole.