children means water as fun, play and adventure especially (in a pool, pond, and
lake). However, water can be dangerous to a child because it can cause drowning.
According to World Health Organization (2014), children under the age of 5
years are at highest risk of drowning. Each day more than 450 children drown
throughout the world and for those who survive will suffer serious lifelong
disabilities, including brain damage from nonfatal drowning events. Drowning also
results in over 175 000 deaths in children and youth aged 0–19 each year.
pools are known for a large proportion of drowning deaths and the age group
most at risk are children under five. An average of 30 children under the age
of five have drowned in Australia each year for the past 10 years. The Royal
Life Saving National Drowning Report (2015) reported a 30% increase in the
number of drowning deaths recorded in children under five nationally, with 26
deaths, up on the 20 deaths recorded in the 2014 report. Of the deaths in
children under five in 2015, over half occurred in swimming pools.
There were between 600–700 notified
fatalities due to drowning per year (mean=643.3, SD=43.4 over 8 years). No
apparent rise or decrease in volume of fatalities over these years. In 2007 the
national fatal drowning rate in Malaysia was 2.3 per 100,000. Drowning rates
were highest in east coast states (Terengganu 4.6, Kelantan 4.2), and in
monsoon period (November to March). 250–300 children died each year due to
drowning from 2000–2007 (mean=286, SD=27.5 over 8 years). This is 40–45% of
fatal drowning each year. In 2007, the fatal drowning rates were 3.0 for ages
below 18 years and 2.9 for ages below 20 years. Childhood fatal drowning rates
were 4.6 in boys and 1.3 in girls. Highest fatality rates were in children aged
10-14 years (3.4), and Malays had the highest number of cases (192) (Dr
Amar-Singh HSS, 2011).