believes that there are ten managerial roles that can be arranged into three areas:
interpersonal, informational and decisional. Interpersonal roles cover the
relationships that a manager needs to have with his co-workers. Managers need
to collect, disseminate and transmit information and have three corresponding
informational roles. Mintzberg thinks the most crucial detail of managerial
activity is concerned with decision making. Because entrepreneur and managers
make choices about changing what is going on in an organisation. Managers are
not just worried in managing only the internal funds of the organisation, but
must also spend a lot of time in keeping contacts with the stakeholders, both
within and outside the organisation. This is mainly because then you can update
them of any adjustments in the environment which then may affect the
organisation, there is an exercise known as ‘boundary scanning’. Managers in
business must be attentive of what their competition is doing, of trends in
customer demand, and of any development in the economic environment.

5 main elements of management

Planning is a necessary part of the business. It will dictate what the
organisational goals is and how they aim to achieve these. A strategy will shape
exactly how to manage a decision and what staff will be required to ensure that
this can be tackled and to make sure its completed effectively.

each levels of management will also be in charge for the organising a different
duty and employees. They are going to be in charge for organising the members
workloads and also, they are going to be in charge of the resources they need
in order for them to manage their position very well.

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At work, sometimes workers may become bored and uninterested and as a manager
it is your job to motivate these people to work harder. Lack of interest can come
from many different problems however the knock-on consequence of this is major
and these problems need to be solved as fast as possible before it grows and
the work decreases. The management need to make sure that they have the employees
on their side and they appreciate their jobs to constantly deliver a high productivity
and quality pieces of work.

Management will also be in charge for the harmonization of the day to day jobs of
the organisation. This will involve tasks such as work rotations, workloads and
other tasks. They are also going to coordinate on how they request for the
objectives set to be worked towards and how are going to be achieved.

this is a massive part of a manager’s position as they need to make sure that they
keep on trail and guarantee that they stay on top of all the different types of
matters. If a problem is to rise, generally the manager would be the individual
to try and handle this. Also, they are in charge for guaranteeing that the
staff is working to their greatest of their abilities and coming for work every
working day but at the same time listening to their thoughts and their opinions
and taking these on board.

The managers of JOC will have to be responsible for all the activities to
ensure they do meet the organisations targets and objectives effectively. These
activities are all equally as vital as the other and at some point, if not every
single day, they will have to adjust to these skills to perform to the very
best standards.
In the case study Suzy was the manager and she would meet Leon every Monday to
talk about potential development, this allowed her to be involved in making
chocolate and at the same time away from the business to go see customers and
to see if they were happy and their needs was satisfied. Hafiz and Suzy used to
meet on Mondays too to talk about the production programme, following which he
would meet with team leaders to discuss and assign tasks and talk about any
potential issues. He ensured all the employees under took a job development and
employee review every four months. In this way hafiz felt it was embowering the
team. Part of this was to make sure job rotation to let the staff   build
their knowledge and their skills as well, this helped them contribute as a team



In plan to
measure managerial performance productively, system could be used, a managerial
review system. This is a way to analyse managerial performance by using methods
such as communication, leadership and change, to measure effectiveness.
The review system is developed to be interactive and to support communication
methods between the management and it will involve actions such as performance
management and appraisals.

Performance management is related to make sure the objective of the
organisation is being consistently met. It does not only concentrate on the
management performance but also it can be used to examine individual’s workers
as well as the entire organisation. Performance management aids the
organisation as it guarantees the effective distribution of the company’s
goals. Meeting the Organisational targets will then eventually lead to more
benefits such as greater profits, motivated staff, and improved control.

An appraisal is a system used to judge workers performance and efficiency,
these are also known as performance reviews. Appraisals gives the company an
opportunity to sit down with the employee on a one on one basis, evaluate their
productivity, and give them feedback on what they doing great and on where they
could be improve and also they can plan for future. Appraisals will give a
clear indication of how well the employee is doing and what needs to be
developed further.

Joy of chocolate should adapt to these methods to make sure the staff are
working successfully towards the strategic, operational and tactical targets of
the company and that the management are performing to the greatest of their abilities
to make sure business growth and success.





Douglas McGregor was social psychologist from the United States who suggested
the X theory back in 1960. The theory implies there are two methods to
managing people: X & Y.

This theory indicates that people don’t like working and they will try to avoid
it if they can. after this it says that workers require to be threatened with
punishment to influence the staff to work towards their objectives. It is thought
that managers have a habit to power in the way of Theory X will produce poor

theory Y indicates that staff tend to want to be heavily involved in their
roles, they are content to work, and they find their jobs worthwhile. Managers
who choose to use Theory Y will easily benefit from improved performance and outcomes
which will allow the staff to grow and progress.

JOC management now work towards Theory Y and so far, it appears to be
effective. The employees are reliable and hardworking and heavily involved and loyal
to the business and wish for the company to flourish. This demonstrates that
the Theory Y method does work, and the company does profit from high levels of
performance and it’s that dedication and commitment of their employees which
has permitted them to consider expansion.


Vroom(victor) & Yetton(Philip) is a contingency theory of leadership. It is
a model which offers guidelines to support management choose proper leadership
styles. The model recognizes five dissimilar leadership styles and the level of
participation with each one.

These are:
Autocratic- 1
* the leader decides solves the problem alone or makes the decisions with the
information he/she presented with that time.

Autocratic- 2
* leader gets the essential information from the workers and  makes a decision by himself

Consultative -1
*this Where the leader shares the issue with others on a one to one basis. The
leader then will take the workers ideas on board and then try to decide.

Consultative- 2
* leader shares the problem with the staff in a group meeting to attain their thoughts
and ideas then will generally make a personal decision on the issue.

Group based -2
*leaders will share the matter with others as a group then he tries to have a
discussion. The group will share ideas and opinions and assess alternatives i
to reach an agreement. The leader is going to lead the meeting and make sure
the topic remains the subject until an agreement is had. The leader won’t try
to influence their decision in anyway.

A contingency theory offers a background for management to advance the most suitable
organisational design and management style for a situation and I trust this is
a great theory for JOY to adapt as it allows the management to change to suit
the issue and think outside of the box. Leon and hafiz agreed to include staff in
a new product with blind testing, the staff were also encouraged to name a new chocolate,
this was a major factor in creating a positive workforce because the staff wanted
to be heavily involved.


Managing transformation is an extremely important matter when it comes to executing
changes in an organisation. As a manager, you need to be able to understand how
to lead your staff over the change while trying to avoid any struggle.

It is very important when implementing a change that the staff understand why
the alteration is necessary and that the company could help them through the change.

I feel that the contingency theory of leadership, Vroom & Yetten, as stated
above, is the flawless theory for the management at JOY of chocolate to adjust
as it will offer different approaches on how best to control the decision
making procedures that come with alteration.

employees may not like change due to various factors, main ones are: fear of
unknown, lack of a safety, and lack of a communication.

Management maybe will feel trying different management styles for different aspects
may work well than to just to diving in head first and making all of the
decisions. management will have to converse the suggestions with the employees
and ask their thoughts and ideas before just jumping to decide to make a
decision concerning the business’s future.

at  the moment staff are happy in their
workplace although these factors concerning change could quickly change their feelings
and this may cause productivity level to drop, leon and hafiz seem happy and
they are going to make sure that employees stay happy too for maximum
productivity the staff need to be happy and feel happy with their leaders.


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