Mintzbergbelieves that there are ten managerial roles that can be arranged into three areas:interpersonal, informational and decisional.
Interpersonal roles cover therelationships that a manager needs to have with his co-workers. Managers needto collect, disseminate and transmit information and have three correspondinginformational roles. Mintzberg thinks the most crucial detail of managerialactivity is concerned with decision making. Because entrepreneur and managersmake choices about changing what is going on in an organisation.
Managers arenot just worried in managing only the internal funds of the organisation, butmust also spend a lot of time in keeping contacts with the stakeholders, bothwithin and outside the organisation. This is mainly because then you can updatethem of any adjustments in the environment which then may affect theorganisation, there is an exercise known as ‘boundary scanning’. Managers inbusiness must be attentive of what their competition is doing, of trends incustomer demand, and of any development in the economic environment.5 main elements of management PLANPlanning is a necessary part of the business. It will dictate what theorganisational goals is and how they aim to achieve these. A strategy will shapeexactly how to manage a decision and what staff will be required to ensure thatthis can be tackled and to make sure its completed effectively.
ORGANISEeach levels of management will also be in charge for the organising a differentduty and employees. They are going to be in charge for organising the membersworkloads and also, they are going to be in charge of the resources they needin order for them to manage their position very well.MOTIVATEAt work, sometimes workers may become bored and uninterested and as a managerit is your job to motivate these people to work harder. Lack of interest can comefrom many different problems however the knock-on consequence of this is majorand these problems need to be solved as fast as possible before it grows andthe work decreases. The management need to make sure that they have the employeeson their side and they appreciate their jobs to constantly deliver a high productivityand quality pieces of work.COORDINATEManagement will also be in charge for the harmonization of the day to day jobs ofthe organisation.
This will involve tasks such as work rotations, workloads andother tasks. They are also going to coordinate on how they request for theobjectives set to be worked towards and how are going to be achieved.CONTROLthis is a massive part of a manager’s position as they need to make sure that theykeep on trail and guarantee that they stay on top of all the different types ofmatters. If a problem is to rise, generally the manager would be the individualto try and handle this. Also, they are in charge for guaranteeing that thestaff is working to their greatest of their abilities and coming for work everyworking day but at the same time listening to their thoughts and their opinionsand taking these on board.The managers of JOC will have to be responsible for all the activities toensure they do meet the organisations targets and objectives effectively. Theseactivities are all equally as vital as the other and at some point, if not everysingle day, they will have to adjust to these skills to perform to the verybest standards.
In the case study Suzy was the manager and she would meet Leon every Monday totalk about potential development, this allowed her to be involved in makingchocolate and at the same time away from the business to go see customers andto see if they were happy and their needs was satisfied. Hafiz and Suzy used tomeet on Mondays too to talk about the production programme, following which hewould meet with team leaders to discuss and assign tasks and talk about anypotential issues. He ensured all the employees under took a job development andemployee review every four months. In this way hafiz felt it was embowering theteam. Part of this was to make sure job rotation to let the staff buildtheir knowledge and their skills as well, this helped them contribute as a teammember. Q)2In plan tomeasure managerial performance productively, system could be used, a managerialreview system. This is a way to analyse managerial performance by using methodssuch as communication, leadership and change, to measure effectiveness.
The review system is developed to be interactive and to support communicationmethods between the management and it will involve actions such as performancemanagement and appraisals.Performance management is related to make sure the objective of theorganisation is being consistently met. It does not only concentrate on themanagement performance but also it can be used to examine individual’s workersas well as the entire organisation.
Performance management aids theorganisation as it guarantees the effective distribution of the company’sgoals. Meeting the Organisational targets will then eventually lead to morebenefits such as greater profits, motivated staff, and improved control.An appraisal is a system used to judge workers performance and efficiency,these are also known as performance reviews. Appraisals gives the company anopportunity to sit down with the employee on a one on one basis, evaluate theirproductivity, and give them feedback on what they doing great and on where theycould be improve and also they can plan for future. Appraisals will give aclear indication of how well the employee is doing and what needs to bedeveloped further. Joy of chocolate should adapt to these methods to make sure the staff areworking successfully towards the strategic, operational and tactical targets ofthe company and that the management are performing to the greatest of their abilitiesto make sure business growth and success.
Q)3McGREGOR, THEORY X & YDouglas McGregor was social psychologist from the United States who suggestedthe X theory back in 1960. The theory implies there are two methods tomanaging people: X & Y. THEORY XThis theory indicates that people don’t like working and they will try to avoidit if they can. after this it says that workers require to be threatened withpunishment to influence the staff to work towards their objectives. It is thoughtthat managers have a habit to power in the way of Theory X will produce poorresults.THEORY Ytheory Y indicates that staff tend to want to be heavily involved in theirroles, they are content to work, and they find their jobs worthwhile.
Managerswho choose to use Theory Y will easily benefit from improved performance and outcomeswhich will allow the staff to grow and progress.JOC management now work towards Theory Y and so far, it appears to beeffective. The employees are reliable and hardworking and heavily involved and loyalto the business and wish for the company to flourish.
This demonstrates thatthe Theory Y method does work, and the company does profit from high levels ofperformance and it’s that dedication and commitment of their employees whichhas permitted them to consider expansion.Q)4LEADERSHIPTHEORIESVroom(victor) & Yetton(Philip) is a contingency theory of leadership. It isa model which offers guidelines to support management choose proper leadershipstyles. The model recognizes five dissimilar leadership styles and the level ofparticipation with each one.These are:Autocratic- 1* the leader decides solves the problem alone or makes the decisions with theinformation he/she presented with that time.
Autocratic- 2* leader gets the essential information from the workers and makes a decision by himselfConsultative -1*this Where the leader shares the issue with others on a one to one basis. Theleader then will take the workers ideas on board and then try to decide.Consultative- 2* leader shares the problem with the staff in a group meeting to attain their thoughtsand ideas then will generally make a personal decision on the issue.Group based -2*leaders will share the matter with others as a group then he tries to have adiscussion. The group will share ideas and opinions and assess alternatives ito reach an agreement.
The leader is going to lead the meeting and make surethe topic remains the subject until an agreement is had. The leader won’t tryto influence their decision in anyway.A contingency theory offers a background for management to advance the most suitableorganisational design and management style for a situation and I trust this isa great theory for JOY to adapt as it allows the management to change to suitthe issue and think outside of the box.
Leon and hafiz agreed to include staff ina new product with blind testing, the staff were also encouraged to name a new chocolate,this was a major factor in creating a positive workforce because the staff wantedto be heavily involved. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIPManaging transformation is an extremely important matter when it comes to executingchanges in an organisation. As a manager, you need to be able to understand howto lead your staff over the change while trying to avoid any struggle.It is very important when implementing a change that the staff understand whythe alteration is necessary and that the company could help them through the change.I feel that the contingency theory of leadership, Vroom & Yetten, as statedabove, is the flawless theory for the management at JOY of chocolate to adjustas it will offer different approaches on how best to control the decisionmaking procedures that come with alteration.
employees may not like change due to various factors, main ones are: fear ofunknown, lack of a safety, and lack of a communication.Management maybe will feel trying different management styles for different aspectsmay work well than to just to diving in head first and making all of thedecisions. management will have to converse the suggestions with the employeesand ask their thoughts and ideas before just jumping to decide to make adecision concerning the business’s future.at the moment staff are happy in theirworkplace although these factors concerning change could quickly change their feelingsand this may cause productivity level to drop, leon and hafiz seem happy andthey are going to make sure that employees stay happy too for maximumproductivity the staff need to be happy and feel happy with their leaders.