Maggie SchafferPeriod 6Internal Assessment Planning GuidePART 1: Research Summary AssignmentWhat study are you replicating?, K. & Schellenberg, E. (1999). The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference. Psychological Science, Vol 10, No. 4, 370-373. What was the research question?How does music affect the performance of given spatial temporal tasks? (experiment 1)How may preference of stimuli have an affect the performance inside that condition? (experiment 2) Describe their sample.Participants consisted of 84 undergraduates: 56 of the subjects took part in Experiment 1, while 28 took part in Experiment 2. All participated in both conditions of the experiment they were in. Identify the materials that they used.For the music group they used a 10 minute pre-recorded tape of 2 pianos playing Mozart’s Sonata along with another 10 minute tape of the first 10 minutes of Schubert’s Fantasia (also played on a piano).In experiment 2, had a 10 minute pre-recorded short story called “The Last Rung on the Ladder”- supposed to act as a more engaging task than sitting in silence yet not engaging enough to excite the participants as the music does.Computer controlled experiment- recorded their responses to the Paper Fold and Cutting (PF&C) tasks. There were 34 items, 17 per condition, all with 5 possible outcomes. Briefly explain their procedure.Experiment 156 participants split into 2 conditions: Music and controlHalf of the the participants in the music condition listened to the first 10 mins of Mozart’s Sonata and the other half listened to Schubert’s Fantasia (both on piano and pre-recorded).The controls sat in silence for 10 minutes.Then they were given 17 PF&C tasks and their goal was to pick the right answer out of 5 possible outcomes. The items were ordered from least to greatest based on difficulty.Student has to visualize the cuts/folds and then chooses the option that shows how the paper would look unfolded. No one was told whether they were right or wrongAll participants repeated procedures in both conditionsExperiment 228 participants split into 2 conditions: Music and ControlAgain participants in music condition listened to either first 10 minutes or Mozart or Schubert.The control group listened to a 10 minute story (auditory stimulus) called “The Last Rung on the Ladder”.  Like Experiment 1, given 17 tasks and tried to pick the correct one.Repeated procedures in both conditionsAfter, participants were asked which condition they preferred. Researchers did not ask this in Experiment 1 because they assumed that all participants would prefer listening to music rather than sitting in silence. What were the results of the study? Include numbers where possible.Experiment 1Scores on task were better when participants were exposed to the 10 minutes of music. About a 20% difference.Results showed that the Mozart effect was presentNo difference between the two music pieces.Experiment 2Scores showed no difference between conditions (less than 0.1%)Mozart effect disappeared13 prefered Mozart and 15 prefered story- participants showed improvement on task when performing after the prefered condition. Evaluate their methodology.Sample size is good. Can be generalized to all undergraduates. Because there was no difference in performance between the Mozart listeners and the Schubert listeners can be generalized to all classic music. However cannot be generalized to all music. Listening to music before task only has a short term effect meaning that it was only temporary. They only tested spatial reasoning rather than overall IQ points- people can misinterpret the results thinking that listening to classical music or listening to this short story will make you more intelligent.


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