Literature Review


In creating English variety in Bangladesh, the print and
electronic media plays a vital role(Banu,2000).

Sally Johnson & Astrid Ensslin studied language in the
newspapers. He selected two British newspapers, The Times and The Guardian. He
says that media play its role in both representing and constructing language.


Ekola (2010) from university of Jyvaskyla studied code switching in finish
magazine advertisements. Two magazines Suomen Kuvalehti and image was use to
collect 44 advertisements.

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Md Mokarrom Hossain & Md Mahadhi Hasan & Asek Amin
Meraj (2015) studied redefining Bangladeshi variety of English in print and
electronic media. They adopted mixed method. They collect data from four
sources, print newspapers, and radio, TV and media workers. They collected 50
TV shows, and discussion with 20 reporters. Their data analysis shows that
localization or nativisation is common in the print and electronic media.
People in Bangladesh copy the localized English used in Bangladeshi print and
electronic media.


Furthermore, Talaat (2002), in her study titled “The Form and
Functions of English in Pakistan” collected data from English newspaper and
magazines published in Pakistan. The selected text was analyzed by comparing
“standard British English” with Urdu sentence structure. It was observed that
Urdu structure greatly influenced English Language giving rise to Pakistani
English. She also noticed structural divergence in language and concluded that
it is due to code-mixing and literal translation.

Nadia Farrah Shoeb (2008) used Pakistani Urdu and English
Newspapers to analyze Editorials. She selected 4 newspapers which are Jang,
Nawa-i-Waqt, Dawn, and Daily Times. In editorials she interpreted
government-press-language relationship in Pakistan.

Hafiz Ahmad Bilal, Ali Abbas Warraich, Nida Fatima, Sikandar
Tiwana &Talha (2012) from Sargodha University, Pakistan used Dawn English
newspaper to check Urdu loan words in Pakistani English. Their results show
that loan words are similar in both English and Urdu languages.



Shen (2010) has studied Chinese-English code switching in
Chinese sports news reports. The study was based on an “influential and
comprehensive sports newspaper of China. 

Deborah Ashabai &Fredericks John from Taylor’s university
of Malaya studied identity construction and code switching in English
newspapers advertisements.

Innocent Ejimofor Agu from Federal university Wukari, Nigeria
studied a linguistic-stylistic analysis of newspaper reportage. Data was
collected from three newspapers: Daily sun, Daily Trust and Leadership. 5
reports were collected to analyze. It was discovered that some journalists
report objectively, while some bring personal bias and emotions into stories.

Sanjica, Maja and Darko from university of Osijek, Croatia
published research article in 2014 with the title of Newspapers as a research
source for historians and linguists. Survey was conducted through online
questionnaire and results show that almost half of the respondents use
newspapers as a primary research source and the majority of respondents
prefer       to consult print newspapers
over electronic.

Lau Su Kia, Xiongyong Cheng, Tan Kooi Yee & Choo Wee Ling
(2007) from Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, researched code mixing of
English in the entertainment news of Chinese newspapers in Malaysia. They
collected 1000 sentences from 3 newspapers, China Press, Mun Sang Poh and Guang
Ming Daily.

Behzad Anwar (2007) studied Urdu English code switching: The
use of Urdu phrases and clauses in Pakistani English. He collected date from
Three Pakistani English newspapers and magazines which are Dawn, Herald and Mag.
Data shows that the occurrence of various Urdu phrases and clauses impose no
ungrammatical effects on the construction of English syntax.

In another study, Sitti Kussuji Indrastuti (2009) observed
that the frequency of code-switching and code-mixing on Yasika F M Radio is
much high as compared to other radio stations in Yogyo karta. It has been
observed that internal code–switching i.e. code-switching in the manner and
style is common on the Yasika Radio station. The results showed that code
switching is either due to a shift from a non-serious to serious matter or to
add humor to the broadcast.

 Mushtaq and Zahra
(2012) have analyzed code mixing in television commercials. The researchers
aimed at analyzing extent and impact of code mixing in advertisements shown on
different channels in Pakistan. Data was recorded from 3 Pakistani channels
that are Geo TV, ARY Digital Network and Hum TV. A questionnaire was
distributed to know the views and impact of code mixing on the viewers of TV
commercials. The research concluded code mixing exists to a greater extent in
TV commercials and in leaving a strong impact on the viewers by serving the
purpose of effective communication. 

Similarly, Asgher (2012) conducted a research and he is of
the view that code-mixing results in hybridization, when two or more languages
are frequently mixed it results in a new hybrid variety of language. Although,
this new variety shares to some extent qualities of both languages but it has
its own unique and independent grammar and vocabulary which is matchless to any
of the mixed languages. Asghar strengthens his conclusion by giving some
examples such as “leaderan, machinain, classon, quomi assembly,
hakomatimemberan…” He also noticed that some speakers are in a habit of
repeating English equivalents of Urdu words either to show their knowledge and
command on English Language or to express their status consciousness.

M.Usman, Syed Farooq Ali & Aamir Masood studied the
syllabification of English words when spoken in Urdu. They collected data of
eleven hundred English words from thirty five thousand words Urdu lexicon to
confirm that words are common to both English and Urdu.

M.Shaban Rafi from U.M.T Lahore, Pakistan researched Urdu and
English contact in an E-Discourse: changes and implications. He sampled data
from 200 BS students of five universities. He used face book as a primary
source of data collection.

Qandeel Hussain from Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
studied phonological make up of English loanwords incorporated into Punjabi via
Urdu. This study was based on two corpuses: a corpus of 292 English loanwords
in Punjabi; and a corpus of 421 English loan words in Punjabi and Urdu. They
conclude that Urdu adapted forms are more similar to Punjabi when the English
loanwords are adapted via Urdu into Punjabi.

Dr.M.Aslam Sipra from King Abdul-Aziz University studied
borrowing words from English to Urdu.

Code mixing in Urdu news of private Pakistani channels was
studied by Andleeb Ehsan Abdul Aziz from Hamdard University Karachi,
Pakistan. Data was collected from thirty on aired news items. Data was
collected by audio-video recordings.

Iftikhar Ahmed Chughtai, Misbah Afsheen Khan & Misbah Rosheen
Khan (2016) researched about reasons and contexts to switch and mix English
code by Pakistani young learners in their native speech. They collected data
from 53 young learners residing in Bahawalpur City Punjab. Close ended
questionnaire used as a tool to collect data. The analysis shows that in almost
all contexts, English code is switch and mix in their speech. They mostly do so
for instrumental a purpose that does not make their own tongue to be inferior.
It is because English language has multidimensional usage and functions to
perform which make it a hot cake.


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