Literature Review In creating English variety in Bangladesh, the print andelectronic media plays a vital role(Banu,2000).Sally Johnson & Astrid Ensslin studied language in thenewspapers. He selected two British newspapers, The Times and The Guardian. Hesays that media play its role in both representing and constructing language. TyttiEkola (2010) from university of Jyvaskyla studied code switching in finishmagazine advertisements. Two magazines Suomen Kuvalehti and image was use tocollect 44 advertisements.Md Mokarrom Hossain & Md Mahadhi Hasan & Asek AminMeraj (2015) studied redefining Bangladeshi variety of English in print andelectronic media. They adopted mixed method.
They collect data from foursources, print newspapers, and radio, TV and media workers. They collected 50TV shows, and discussion with 20 reporters. Their data analysis shows thatlocalization or nativisation is common in the print and electronic media.People in Bangladesh copy the localized English used in Bangladeshi print andelectronic media. Furthermore, Talaat (2002), in her study titled “The Form andFunctions of English in Pakistan” collected data from English newspaper andmagazines published in Pakistan. The selected text was analyzed by comparing”standard British English” with Urdu sentence structure.
It was observed thatUrdu structure greatly influenced English Language giving rise to PakistaniEnglish. She also noticed structural divergence in language and concluded thatit is due to code-mixing and literal translation.Nadia Farrah Shoeb (2008) used Pakistani Urdu and EnglishNewspapers to analyze Editorials. She selected 4 newspapers which are Jang,Nawa-i-Waqt, Dawn, and Daily Times. In editorials she interpretedgovernment-press-language relationship in Pakistan.
Hafiz Ahmad Bilal, Ali Abbas Warraich, Nida Fatima, SikandarTiwana &Talha (2012) from Sargodha University, Pakistan used Dawn Englishnewspaper to check Urdu loan words in Pakistani English. Their results showthat loan words are similar in both English and Urdu languages. Shen (2010) has studied Chinese-English code switching inChinese sports news reports. The study was based on an “influential andcomprehensive sports newspaper of China. Deborah Ashabai &Fredericks John from Taylor’s universityof Malaya studied identity construction and code switching in Englishnewspapers advertisements.Innocent Ejimofor Agu from Federal university Wukari, Nigeriastudied a linguistic-stylistic analysis of newspaper reportage. Data wascollected from three newspapers: Daily sun, Daily Trust and Leadership. 5reports were collected to analyze.
It was discovered that some journalistsreport objectively, while some bring personal bias and emotions into stories.Sanjica, Maja and Darko from university of Osijek, Croatiapublished research article in 2014 with the title of Newspapers as a researchsource for historians and linguists. Survey was conducted through onlinequestionnaire and results show that almost half of the respondents usenewspapers as a primary research source and the majority of respondentsprefer to consult print newspapersover electronic.Lau Su Kia, Xiongyong Cheng, Tan Kooi Yee & Choo Wee Ling(2007) from Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, researched code mixing ofEnglish in the entertainment news of Chinese newspapers in Malaysia.
Theycollected 1000 sentences from 3 newspapers, China Press, Mun Sang Poh and GuangMing Daily.Behzad Anwar (2007) studied Urdu English code switching: Theuse of Urdu phrases and clauses in Pakistani English. He collected date fromThree Pakistani English newspapers and magazines which are Dawn, Herald and Mag.Data shows that the occurrence of various Urdu phrases and clauses impose noungrammatical effects on the construction of English syntax.In another study, Sitti Kussuji Indrastuti (2009) observedthat the frequency of code-switching and code-mixing on Yasika F M Radio ismuch high as compared to other radio stations in Yogyo karta. It has beenobserved that internal code–switching i.
e. code-switching in the manner andstyle is common on the Yasika Radio station. The results showed that codeswitching is either due to a shift from a non-serious to serious matter or toadd humor to the broadcast. Mushtaq and Zahra(2012) have analyzed code mixing in television commercials. The researchersaimed at analyzing extent and impact of code mixing in advertisements shown ondifferent channels in Pakistan. Data was recorded from 3 Pakistani channelsthat are Geo TV, ARY Digital Network and Hum TV. A questionnaire wasdistributed to know the views and impact of code mixing on the viewers of TVcommercials. The research concluded code mixing exists to a greater extent inTV commercials and in leaving a strong impact on the viewers by serving thepurpose of effective communication.
Similarly, Asgher (2012) conducted a research and he is ofthe view that code-mixing results in hybridization, when two or more languagesare frequently mixed it results in a new hybrid variety of language. Although,this new variety shares to some extent qualities of both languages but it hasits own unique and independent grammar and vocabulary which is matchless to anyof the mixed languages. Asghar strengthens his conclusion by giving someexamples such as “leaderan, machinain, classon, quomi assembly,hakomatimemberan…” He also noticed that some speakers are in a habit ofrepeating English equivalents of Urdu words either to show their knowledge andcommand on English Language or to express their status consciousness.M.
Usman, Syed Farooq Ali & Aamir Masood studied thesyllabification of English words when spoken in Urdu. They collected data ofeleven hundred English words from thirty five thousand words Urdu lexicon toconfirm that words are common to both English and Urdu.M.Shaban Rafi from U.M.T Lahore, Pakistan researched Urdu andEnglish contact in an E-Discourse: changes and implications.
He sampled datafrom 200 BS students of five universities. He used face book as a primarysource of data collection. Qandeel Hussain from Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistanstudied phonological make up of English loanwords incorporated into Punjabi viaUrdu. This study was based on two corpuses: a corpus of 292 English loanwordsin Punjabi; and a corpus of 421 English loan words in Punjabi and Urdu. Theyconclude that Urdu adapted forms are more similar to Punjabi when the Englishloanwords are adapted via Urdu into Punjabi.Dr.M.
Aslam Sipra from King Abdul-Aziz University studiedborrowing words from English to Urdu.Code mixing in Urdu news of private Pakistani channels wasstudied by Andleeb Ehsan Abdul Aziz from Hamdard University Karachi,Pakistan. Data was collected from thirty on aired news items. Data wascollected by audio-video recordings.Iftikhar Ahmed Chughtai, Misbah Afsheen Khan & Misbah RosheenKhan (2016) researched about reasons and contexts to switch and mix Englishcode by Pakistani young learners in their native speech. They collected datafrom 53 young learners residing in Bahawalpur City Punjab. Close endedquestionnaire used as a tool to collect data.
The analysis shows that in almostall contexts, English code is switch and mix in their speech. They mostly do sofor instrumental a purpose that does not make their own tongue to be inferior.It is because English language has multidimensional usage and functions toperform which make it a hot cake.