The physical and cognitive development in lifespan development differs between the stages of development. The stages of development start from infancy (birth to 1 year) and end at late adulthood (60 + years). The stage I would like to focus on is the second stage. The second stage is early childhood (2 to 6 years). I wanted to focus on this stage because my 2 year old daughter is in this stage of lifespan development, so I would like to know more. My main areas of focus are on factors that affect physical and cognitive development, while considering heredity and environmental influences.
The second stage of lifespan development is early childhood, which ranges from ages 2 to 6. Early childhood is known to be one of the most rapid times of physical development. In physical development of early childhood there are three main areas the changing quickly. The three main areas continuous changing or growing is the brain, motor, and sensory development. The brain grows 75 percent of its adult size and weight by age 2. The rapid growth of the brain will eventually start to slow down later on during childhood.
Next, comes the motor development in child between ages 2 and 6. In the early childhood stage, motor development is actually easy to witness because child is always so busy. When the infant to show or make movement of different body part they are developing motor skills. The motor development is mainly relied on by the natural maturity of the child in early childhood. Heredity can the environment influence can affect the motor development in a child. The heredity aspect of it is that the child can have a heredity disorder that disables or slows down motor development.
Lastly, in early childhood of physical development is the sensory development. Sensory development begins in newborns, being able to differentiate certain smells. Also, their sense of touch and pain is exceedingly developed from the infancy stage to the early childhood stage. The only thing in the physical development of early childhood, that develops slowly and out of sorts is vision. Fortunately, at the of early childhood development, a child vision development reaches a near adult level.
When it come to the hearing aspect of physical development, which starts in the womb, raises the chances of fatal learning. All in all, the entire physical development process in early childhood is a major and important time is someone lifespan development. Another important aspect of lifespan development is cognitive development in early childhood. The cognitive stage of lifespan development for early childhood is the preoperational stage. In the preoperational stage, children start to use symbols to represent concept and their language advances.
There are three main characteristics of the preoperational stage of cognitive development. The preoperational stage was given that name due to the adjustable mental process or the lack of operations, which is the first characteristic in this stage. The second characteristic of cognitive development is egocentrism. A child in the preoperational stage has limited ability to discriminate between their own perspectives and others. This basically means that the child has difficulties accepting the point of opinions from other rather than their own.
The children in early childhood of cognitive development assume that others hear, see, think and feel the same way they do. The third characteristic of cognitive development is animism. This characteristic brings up the fact that children believing that all things are animated or alive in some way, shape, or form. These are the reason why the cognitive development is such an important aspect of the lifespan development process. On top of the cognitive and physical development, the development of social, mental, personality is also important aspects of lifespan development.
In the social development stage, the most in important aspect is attachment. Attachment behaviors often are separated along the lines of the nature versus nurture debate. If a child is being raised or raised in an impersonal environment or surroundings, they are mostly likely to not show attachment towards others. The degrees of attachment alter between securely attached, avoidance, and ambivalent or anxious. This is why the social development of children in the early childhood is important to the lifespan development.
Another important aspect of lifespan development is moral development. Moral development is basically developing a sense of knowing right and wrong. In the stage of early childhood, the child is on the preconventional level. Children on the preconventional level moral judgments are centered on themselves. The preconventional level has two stages of orientations. The two different stages of orientations are the punishment obedience orientation and the instrumental exchange orientation.
Lastly, the personality development is yet another information aspect of lifespan development. Personality development refers to the Erikson Psychosocial theory, which was broken up into eight psychosocial stages. Children in the early childhood development are in stage 3, which is the initiative versus guilt stage. This is the stage of early childhood where the child learns to initiate activities, develop confidence in their selves, and grasp a sense of social responsibility. All in all, there are many important aspects of lifespan development.