LEVEL 3 in Construction and the Built Environment – QCF BTEC ASSIGNMENT BRIEF Assignment Front Sheet Qualification Unit number and title BTEC Level 3 – Diploma in Construction and Built Environment (120 credit) Unit 6: Building Technology in Construction Learner name   Assessor name Kieron Howlett Steve Malone Internal Verifier  Date Verified   David Dickins    04/09/2017 Date issued  Hand in deadline Submitted on 27/09/2017  20/10/2017 20/10/2017     Assignment 2   Superstructure     In this assessment you will have opportunities to provide evidence against the following criteria.

Indicate the page numbers where the evidence can be found.   Criteria reference To achieve the criteria the evidence must show that the learner is able to:   Task no.   Evidence/Achieved P5 Explain the principles of superstructure design   1   PAGE:3 P6 Describe the techniques used to construct and finish the component elements of a superstructure   1   PAGE:4,5 M2 Justify the selection of suitable materials and techniques for use in the construction of superstructures for low-rise domestic and commercial buildings, for two different tutor-specified scenarios   2   PAGES:6,7 D2 Evaluate the environmental performance of modern materials and techniques used in the construction of superstructures for low-rise domestic and commercial buildings, for two different tutor-specified scenarios.   2     The Student must sign below to acknowledge receipt of this brief. Once signed, the tutor must comply with the awarding body rules regarding feedback during the assessment process.                     [email protected]

ac.uk                                        20/10/2017 Signed: ……………………………….………..……………………..         Date: ……………………………….

.     Assignment 2 Superstructure Assignment Learning outcomes:   ·         Understand the techniques used in the construction of superstructures for low-rise domestic and commercial buildings.   Scenario: Leading on from Assignment 1, you have been asked to write a further report that explains the principles of superstructure design. Task 1:   1.        A client requires a design for a home extension. Explain the principles of superstructure design to the client.

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P5              During the process of producing the extension design the client asks about the            finishes and the methods of construction proposed for the roof and walls.            Write a short explanation for the client. P6 Task 2:   2.    The following is proposed for the extension:   ·         Three layer felt built up flat roofing ·         305mm width brick and block cavity walls with full cavity fill insulation.             Justify the selection of suitable materials and the techniques proposed. M2           Explain what types of insulation are not suitable for full cavity fill. Ensure the use           of these proposed materials for the wall and roof and explain how their use impacts           on the environment.

D2 Learning Outcomes Evidence Checklist (What you must submit to meet specific Learning Outcomes) tick boxes For P5, you must be able to explain the principles of superstructure design. This should convey an understanding of the underlying principles that influence the design, such as the external envelope’s need for weather resistance, and knowledge of the elements that make up a building. The form of evidence could be as for P4.

  For P6, you must  describe the techniques used to construct and finish the elements of various forms of superstructure for low-rise domestic and commercial buildings. This should include traditional, timber-framed, steel-framed and concrete-framed buildings. The form of evidence could be as in P4.   For M2, you are required to justify the selection of materials and techniques for use in the construction of superstructures for low-rise domestic and commercial buildings for two tutor-specified scenarios. This should include all the elements described in the unit content and the methods used to assemble these elements to produce the specified buildings.

  For D2, you must evaluate the environmental performance of modern materials and techniques used in the construction of superstructures for low-rise domestic and commercial buildings, for two different tutor-specified scenarios.       P5 – The principles of superstructuredesignThedefinition of a superstructure is a shell that sits on top of the sub structurewhich forms the outer envelope of the building (A structure which is placedonto another structure). These are the main principles of a superstructure;-           Internal openings, such as; Hatches,doors, etc..

. –          Upperfloors, such as; balconies, landings, etc…-           Frame, such as; Roof beams,loadbearing framework floors, roof trusses etc…-           Roof, such as; the drainage, the structure, coverings, features,sky lights etc…-           Stairs which connects all the floorstogether.-           Openings, such as; Windows, doors,vents, etc…-           Internal walls, such as; Balustrade,partitions, moving room sliders, cubicles, etc…-           External walls; enclosing the walls.All thesedifferent principles allow the building to become weather/air tight. This makesthe building ready for occupants.          P6 – The techniques used to constructand finish the component elements of a Superstructure.

 Once thesuperstructure has been erected the finishes and can be decided. These arenon-structural and are usually decided with the client as there will be a costinvolved depending on the choices made. The finisheswill be required on the following;-           Flooring; Different types of flooringsuch as carpet, hardwood flooring, ceramic tiles, laminate flooring, marbleflooring, etc…-           Cleanliness; Keeping the roomsterile, tidy, clear, etc…-           Fashion/Aesthetics;Smart, designed, different cabinets/furniture, authentic/unusual.-           Fire resistance; Different types ofcladding surrounding the room, fire resistant paint, using materials forfurniture that are not flammable.-           Sound resistance; sound resistantplasterboard, curtains, windows, doors, floor, etc… if required.-           Health and safety; smooth/grippedfinishes, double glazed windows, no trip hazards, controlling the temperature,etc…-           Function; Waterproofing in the bathrooms/kitchens.

–           Colour; some areas are inconservation areas and the buildings cannot be painted in certain colours.     The methodof how the external walls, internal walls and roof are detailed below;External walls – the most common design is cavitywalling. This is simply either a two brick walls built parallel to each otherwith a gap (cavity) between them. The type of design helps prevent the outsideelements from penetrating into the house with the cavity usually filled withinsulation to help retain the heat inside the house.The other form is similar to twobrick, but with the inner wall be constructed out of wood.

The benefits arethat you can have a waterproof proof house within days. The wood is covered ina breathable membrane to prevent water/moisture from penetrating the house. Theouter wall (brick) does the same job as with the two walls. However, the cavitythis time is placed within the timber frame, not in the cavity itself. Roof – will be constructed using woodtrussed rafters with diagonal braces, steel straps and noggins. The concretetiles will be laid on wooden battens.

Behind the batters will be a breathablemembrane and between the rafters celotex will be laid.Internal walls – will be constructed dependant on whether they are structural or not. Ifthey form part of the structure the wall will be constructed using brick orblockwork. These will then be covered in plasterboard and then a plaster skim.However, if brick has been used the client may wish that the brick work is leftexposed. If the wall is non-structural thenthe wall will most certainly be built from timber or metal.

Both will beclassed as a stud wall. These are erected quickly with plaster screwed to thetimber/metal and then a skim applied on top. A benefit with both is thatnoggins can be placed at specific locations where fittings, radiators forexample, will be hung.  M2 – The selection of suitablematerials and techniques for use in the construction of superstructures forlow-rise domestic and commercial buildings, for two different tutor-specifiedscenarios Flat RoofA flat roofcan last up to 20 years if they are constructed properly, and are ideal forsmall extensions to existing buildings. They are also extremely cheap comparedto standard pitched roofs. It may also be found that planning approval will notbe granted to the extension if it was proposed with a pitched roof due the blockingthe neighbours light.

The flat roof will be covered inthree layers of bitumen felt. These will be applied with a hot flame (blowinglamp). The layers typically consist of a vapour control layer, 2mm reinforcedfelt layer and a 4mm felt layer called a cap sheet.

The cap layer can come indifferent finishes dependent on the client’s requirements. Each layer iseffectively welded together with the blowing lamp forming a waterproof sealbetween each layer and the plywood which the felt is protecting. An aggregateis usually applied once the three layers have set. This helps protect the feltand increases its life span. For this build and the above reason this type ofroof is ideal for those with a small extension and small budget.

 A 305mm width brick and block cavitywallA 305mmwidth brick and block cavity wall is the most common wall used for domesticdwellings. This type of wall (with a cavity) ensures that it will comply withbuilding regulations and offer the best resistance to heat loss. With thisproposal, the cavity is to be filled with insulation that will greatly increasethe effectiveness in not losing heat. Because this type of wall has been constructedsince the early 1930s it is a tried and tested construction method of buildinga wall with the homes still standing strong.

Another benefit is most, if notall builders know how to build this type of wall and therefore costs should notbe abnormally high. The external walls will also form part of thesuperstructure taking the forces and loads from the above. To construct this type of wallthe internal leaf with metal wall ties being placed and strategic points.Once theinner leaf is up to a specified height the outer leaf is to construct with themetal ties locking the two walls together. The insulation will be placed in thecavity during the construction phase eliminating the potential of any gapsbeing left that will create cold spot