Let’s look broadly how mars compares
to earth. First, mars is 49,000,000 miles further away from the sun than the
earth is (Dunbar, 2009) . Mars is moving slower than the earth and has a longer
orbital path. The earth is revolving or traveling around the sun at over 66,000
miles per hour and completes one orbit in about 365 and one-quarter days. Mars
is revolving around the sun at about 54,000 miles per hour and travels a much
longer path than the earth. As a result mars takes 687 day to complete one
orbit. Mars and earth have similar tilts, this means that both earth and mars
experience winter, spring, summer, and fall, but since mars is further from the
sun its seasons are all much colder than the ones on earth. Mars turns or
rotates slower on its axis than the earth does as a result one day on mars is
24hrs and 40 minutes.

Introduction

The diameter of Mars is about half
that of Earth, making it the second smallest planet in the solar system. Mars
has 63 percent less gravity than Earth, this means that you will weigh 63
percent less on Mars. For example, if you weigh 250 pounds on Earth, on Mars
you would only weigh 156 pounds, it also means you would be able to jump higher.
Mars is much colder than Earth with an average temperature of negative 81
degrees Fahrenheit, that’s over one hundred degrees colder than freezing. Mars
on average is colder than the Antarctic and dryer than the Sahara. Humans
cannot survive breathing in the Martian atmosphere, because it is 96 percent
carbon dioxide, earth’s atmosphere is 78 percent nitrogen and 21 percent
oxygen.

Methods

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In the past century, we have learned
much about earth’s interior, but we have little direct evidence for what’s
inside mars. In the future, geophysical monitoring instruments will be deployed
to mars. This instrumentation will provide evidence to answer the many
questions we have about what lies beneath the surface of the red planet.

Mars might have had a magnetic land
field like Earth has today (Bundeson, 1997). Based on observations of water
features on Earth, scientists send rovers on Mars to areas with having the most
possibility of past liquid water. Scientists examine the surface for evidence
of paleo-hydrological features. Use the features on Earth as a template for the
study of Mars.

Scientists call these comparisons
analogs. Because of the limited access we have to Mars, and since we are not
yet able to send humans there, these comparisons help scientists make
interpretations and suggestions based on what happens here on Earth. Using
satellite imagery of the surface of Mars and combining it with field studies
done here on Earth, analogs allow scientists to make conclusions about features
they see on Mars.

Comparing

Even though Earth and Mars are both
two very different and complex planets, they have many things in common. Both
planets rotate and revolve around an axis. Like Earth, Mars also has four
distinct seasons. The length of day on both planets are similar, with Earth
lasting 24 hours and Mars a lengthy 24 hours and 37 minutes. Another thing
Earth and Mars have in common is there surface. Both are filled with volcanoes,
valleys and craters.

Contrasting

While Earth and Mars have some similarities,
the planets are vastly different. The average temperature on Mars is negative
58 degrees Fahrenheit, while the average temperature on Earth is a whopping 61
degrees Fahrenheit (Sharp, 2012).  Earth
is significantly larger than Mars, double the size to be exact. Another feature
that differentiates Earth from Mars is the atmosphere. Mars has very thin
atmosphere, consisting of roughly 95% carbon dioxide. Liquid water existing at
the surface would freeze and evaporate simultaneously. Earth’s atmosphere is
78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, which makes Mars’ atmosphere 100 times thinner
than Earth’s. The geologic histories of both planets vary drastically. Earth’s
geology is mainly dominated by plate tectonics while Mars’ geology shows very
little evidence of plate motion, no subduction zones, and has a very firm
crust. The Earth’s outer crust is always moving. It is divided into plates that
move laterally. In contrast, Mars’ is stable, although there still appears to
be some magma flow underground. Its geologic state is thus very different from
that of the Earth. Greater stability on Mars results in the preservation of
much older features, some dating back to about four billion years. Erosion on
Earth is primarily due to running water; on Mars, wind might have been the key
reason for erosion. Another feature that separates the two planets is the presence
of water. Earth’s surface is ? water, while water may have once been on Mars,
there is zero sign of it now.

Conclusion

Both Earth and Mars have approximately
identical amounts of dry land surface area, but Mars is only about one-half the
diameter of Earth. The reason why they end up having very similar amounts of
dry land is because most of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans, while the
existing surface of Mars has no liquid water.

Temperature, size and atmosphere are
all things that differentiate Mars from Earth, but the geological processes for
both planets tend to be very similar. Many of the same physical land features
we see on Earth also exist on Mars. But the sheer size of some landforms on
Mars dwarfs that of similar features on Earth.  On both Mars and Earth, canyons, impact basins,
and volcanoes are present. Because the two planets share these resemblances, scientists
are able to learn about certain features because they can use resources here on
Earth.  Mars is a cold, dry, desert
landscape of sand and rocks. Many land features on the present-day surface of
Mars, such as volcanoes, canyons, and valleys, make it look very similar to
Earth, but humans could not survive in the present environment on Mars.

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