The Upanishads – refer to teachings passed on from a teacher toa follower(disciple) – Samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death is their way of understanding the problems that human beings face. – Karma, the law that every action has its effect Is tied with the endless samsara cycle. In short, what one does causes consequences to happen. According to the Upanishads, It is knowledge of the Brahman(the one, the real) that brings moksha(freedom) for the atman from the cycle of samsara. Four Noble Truths:
- Noble Truth of Sorrow (Dukkha) – about suffering and sorrow. Real happiness cannot be found in this world for the world deceives man with illusions of pleasures.
The happiness that is usually experienced is attached to material pleasures that fulfill some worldly desires. – According to Buddha, non- attachment to material, worldly pleasures offers a greater bliss, a more permanent source of happiness.
- Noble Truth of the Arising of Sorrow (Samudaya) -The reason for the suffering is the craving. clinging or attachment. It Is the craving that leads to repeated births (samsara).
– Suffering and craving can only be removed by following the middle path, thereby attaining the supreme bliss of irvana.
- Noble Truth of the Stopping of Sorrow (Nirodha) – deals with the complete stopping of the suffering, thereby attaining nirvana, which Is the goal of all Buddhists. – It can only be achieved by total removal of all forms of craving. – This truth can only be realized through developing the Noble Eightfold Path, the fourth noble truth.
The Eightfold Path avoids the extreme of self- mortification that weakens one’s mental functioning and the extreme of self- indulgence that retards a person’s moral progress. – Confucianism was not founded by Confucius nor did it begin with him but rather e considered himself to be a transmitter of the meaning and significance of rituals. – He believed in the power of culture and his sense of history Is so strong that he considers himself to be a conservationist for the continuation of cultural values and social norms.Confucian Ethics have had the strongest Influence on the moral fabric of Chinese society.
– Confucius believed that social order would flow naturally If the best qualltles of humanity were cultivated within the realm of everyday relationships which particularly centers on the family. The Analects of Confucius (the collection of his sayings) presents not the life of Confucius but the way of Ife that he taught as recorded in the analects. Classic of History – a recording of the words and deeds of the ancient sage-rulers – Classic of Poetry – a collection of some three-hundred poems exemplifying moral virtue and poetic beauty. – Classic of Changes – a book of divination that includes interpretations and commentaries explaining the patterns of the universe.
– Classic of Rites – a collection of detailed accounts and interpretations of rituals and additional philosophical teachings – Spring and Autumn Annals -a record of events in Confucius’ native state of Lu with several commentaries.