Journal of Developmental Psychology

Journal of Early Intervention: Father Involvement in Early Intervention Early intervention is broadly defined as procedures that facilitate the development of infants and young children who have special needs or who are at risk for developmental disabilities. According to the research done in this article, I found very interesting the data that revealed how important the father figure is the learning process of a child with disabilities. I am a faithful believer that the participation of the father is imperative in the life of a child since many factors are involved, such as the representation of the figure of authority and the formation of its character, without neglecting the challenging work of a mother (McBride et al., 2014) revealed that increased levels of early parental involvement in families of children with disabilities may lead to more positive outcomes when children transition to kindergarten.

The father figure in children who require early intervention helps them to have self-confidence, and to develop more marked social skills. These studies indicate that fathers can make important contributions to maternal, child, and family well-being in families of children with disabilities. The participation of the father is often limited by external factors since only 63% of the children live with their biological father, and this leads to the mother becoming the main figure.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Early intervention providers tend to be successful at promoting development when it helps parents interact more responsively with their children. Regardless of whether we have children with or without disabilities, the paternal figure, whether living with the child or not, is crucial for each stage of their development. The investigators conclude that whether in divorce, custody or legal status of the father, the common denominator that affects and delays the process of early intervention is always the absence of the father.


  • McBride, Brent A. (2017). Father Involvement in Early Intervention: Journal of early intervention, 1053-8151. doi: 10.1177/1053815116686118

Journal of Early Adolescence: Attachment and Effortful Control: Relationships with Maladjustment in Early Adolescence The effortful control is considered an aspect of temperament, one could argue that it is an innate, stable trait. However, from birth onward, effortful control development results from exposure to environmental influences during brain maturation.

For example, research found that parent-child interactions can increase or decrease effortful control throughout childhood (Eisenberg, Spinrad, & Eggum, 2010). We as parents can minimize attachment with our children so that they can develop on their own. In theory it sounds good, the problem is to put it into practice. Many times, life tests us with our children (emotional, health, adaptability et,) which we do not know how to handle and what we do is overprotect them.

We cannot confuse overprotection with sensitivity. When we are sensitive parents we are going to create a safety fence in the child that will allow him to relate to others in a healthy way. A healthy attachment can result in the child having a good fit in society. If we assume an overprotective attitude, we will not allow the child to identify for themselves their strengths and weaknesses, and what we will create will be a child who will not step forward unless his mother (father) first. Many researchers found that parent-child interactions can increase or decrease effortful control throughout childhood (Eisenberg, Spinrad, & Eggum, 2010). As parents, we must be empathic and create healthy attachments that reinforce self-esteem.


  • Joke Heylen et. al. (2015). Attachment and Effortful Control; Relationships with Maladjustment in Early Adolescence: Journal of Early Adolescence, 37(3), 289-315

Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: Journal of research on adolescence I am going to start my summary by simply describing that adolescent decision making is a complex and multiply determined phenomenon. First, developmental research grounded in normative models of rational decision making has made significant gains in identifying the factors that influence adolescents’ choices. When we are teenagers we tend to be very impulsive.

The adrenaline goes above reason. We become very vulnerable and with little self-control. In comparison with adults, according to the article, the adolescent lacks that sense of intuition that adults can have, and more in situations of elevated risk. Adolescents do not assess the risks they are exposed to when deciding, but prefer to take the consequences as hard as they may be.

As a rule, adolescents are more likely than adults over 25 to binge drink, smoke cigarettes, have casual sex partners, engage in violent and other criminal behavior, and have fatal or serious automobile crashes, most which are caused by reckless driving or driving under the influence of alcohol. Because many of these behaviors appear inherently irrational when individuals understand their probable long-term consequences, it was assumed that adolescents must be less competent than adults in one or more of the elements of rational decision making. Long ago, it was believed that the decision-making process had to do only with rational aspects, but it has been proven that the psychosocial aspects also influence the decision making of a teenager.


  • Albert, Dustin (2011). Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: Journal of research on adolescence, 21(1), 211-224. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00724.x