Jatrophais a monoecious plant bearing male and female flowers on the same plant. It hasracemose inflorescence in a dichasial cyme pattern. Inflorescences are formedat the terminal or axis of the branches with higher number observed in theareas exposed to sun (Carels 2009). Inflorescences are formed by the grouping of 6 or 10individual cymes, resulting in secondary inflorescences.

These secondaryinflorescences are located at the base of the main inflorescence with tertiaryinflorescences attached to it (Burger and Huft 1995). Length of theinflorescences variesfrom 5 to 25. Jatropha flowers are pale green in color, with apedicle measuring 0.

6cm to1 cm in length. Male flowers (Fig.)measure around 0.75cm to 0.9cm in length and 0.

3cm to 0.4cm in width, while thefemale flowers (Fig.) measure about0.7cm to 0.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,80
Delivery
4,90
Support
4,70
Price
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
4,70
Writers Experience
4,70
Delivery
4,60
Support
4,60
Price
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,50
Delivery
4,40
Support
4,10
Price
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

9cm in length and 0.3cm to 0.4cm in width. Flowers have five sepals;with each sepal ranging from 0.40cm to 0.

60cm in length and 0.20cm to 0.30cmwidth in the male flower (Fig.), andapproximately 0.45cm to 0.

75cm in length and 0.20cm to 0.40cm in width in thefemale flower (Fig.). Bothsexes (male and female) are present at the same inflorescence with singlefemale flower present at the top surrounded by male flowers. First sub-branchmay produce female flower at the second joint of dichotomous branching (Luo etal. 2007).

There are three types of flowering sites in the inflorescence:female flowering sites where female flower forms, male flowering sites whereonly male flowers are formed and the intermediate flowerings sites where bothmale and female flowers are formed. Jatropha is a male dominant plant with aratio of male to female flower 25:1. Male can develop at the female floweringsites whereas the possibility of the development of females at male sites iszero. This shows the inflorescence has lesser number of female flower (average8-10) despite of having 18 female flowering site (Wu et al 2010). The femaleflower consists of stigma, style and ovary, which are green in color. The ovary is glabrous (ca. 2.5×2 mm), comprises of threeovules with stylar columns (0.

5 mm in length) and style branches (1.5 to 2 mmin length). There are three stigmas and styles.

The bifid stigmas are green incolor and are darker than petals and ovary. The floral base consists of fiveflat square yellow glands (0.02 mm in lengths) (Luo et al. 2007). The maleflowers are greenish yellow in color having 10 stamens. The stamens are diadelphous(fused by filaments in two separate bundles). The outer tier of stamens is free, while the inner tieris united.

The stamens are dicyclic (occur in two whirls) and are 2 to 7mm in length. Each stamen has four microsporangia arranged in two thecae (Liuet al. 2007).Anthers are yellow in color and 10 in number and are 1 to 2.

2 mm in length. Theyare dithecous (two anther lobes), dorsifixed (attached dorsally to the filament), anddehisce by the longitudinal slits. At the floral base of male flowers, five oval-shaped yellow glands arepresent0.03 mm long and 0.02 mm wide. Pollen are globular, verrucated andbinucleate averaging 57 ?m in diameter (between 52.5 and 70?m) (Dehgan andWebster 1979; Luo et al 2007). Pollen becomes nonviable after 48 hours and theirabortion may occur in one/two microsporangia per anther (Liu et al.

2007; Luo et al 2007).Presence of hermaphrodite flowers have also been reported, which aresimilar to female flowers with 8-10 stamens. Pollens of hermaphrodite are weakand less viable with lower germination rates (Abdelgadiret al. 2010). 2.3.2 Sex determinationThefloral development of Jatropha has been divided into 12 phases starting fromvegetative to reproductive transition resulting the formation of inflorescencemeristem. During the first five phases no sexual differentiation occurs and thefemales are present as bisexual tissue.

Further development causes the abortionof male tissue allowing the development of female flower. No traces of femaletissues were found in the male flowers. Thus, there are two modes ofdevelopment in Jatropha: formation of female flowers after the abortion of maletissues and the other is the formation of male flowers with early adolescenceand no occurrence of female primordia (Wu et al 2012).

As male can occupyfemale flowering site, causing the decreased ratio of female to male flowers. Thus,to increase the number of female flowers, the most effective approach is eitherto transform male type inflorescences to middle of intermediate type or byincreasing the male abortion rate, allowing female flowers to develop. Thiswould only be possible by having the knowledge of genetic switches causing thetransition towards female flowers. This is one of the method to increase seedyield, as fruits are formed from the female flowers only.  Jatrophais a monoecious plant bearing male and female flowers on the same plant.

It hasracemose inflorescence in a dichasial cyme pattern. Inflorescences are formedat the terminal or axis of the branches with higher number observed in theareas exposed to sun (Carels 2009). Inflorescences are formed by the grouping of 6 or 10individual cymes, resulting in secondary inflorescences. These secondaryinflorescences are located at the base of the main inflorescence with tertiaryinflorescences attached to it (Burger and Huft 1995).

Length of theinflorescences variesfrom 5 to 25. Jatropha flowers are pale green in color, with apedicle measuring 0.6cm to1 cm in length. Male flowers (Fig.)measure around 0.75cm to 0.9cm in length and 0.

3cm to 0.4cm in width, while thefemale flowers (Fig.) measure about0.7cm to 0.9cm in length and 0.3cm to 0.4cm in width.

Flowers have five sepals;with each sepal ranging from 0.40cm to 0.60cm in length and 0.20cm to 0.30cmwidth in the male flower (Fig.), andapproximately 0.45cm to 0.

75cm in length and 0.20cm to 0.40cm in width in thefemale flower (Fig.).

Bothsexes (male and female) are present at the same inflorescence with singlefemale flower present at the top surrounded by male flowers. First sub-branchmay produce female flower at the second joint of dichotomous branching (Luo etal. 2007). There are three types of flowering sites in the inflorescence:female flowering sites where female flower forms, male flowering sites whereonly male flowers are formed and the intermediate flowerings sites where bothmale and female flowers are formed.

Jatropha is a male dominant plant with aratio of male to female flower 25:1. Male can develop at the female floweringsites whereas the possibility of the development of females at male sites iszero. This shows the inflorescence has lesser number of female flower (average8-10) despite of having 18 female flowering site (Wu et al 2010). The femaleflower consists of stigma, style and ovary, which are green in color. The ovary is glabrous (ca.

2.5×2 mm), comprises of threeovules with stylar columns (0.5 mm in length) and style branches (1.5 to 2 mmin length).

There are three stigmas and styles. The bifid stigmas are green incolor and are darker than petals and ovary. The floral base consists of fiveflat square yellow glands (0.02 mm in lengths) (Luo et al. 2007). The maleflowers are greenish yellow in color having 10 stamens. The stamens are diadelphous(fused by filaments in two separate bundles).

The outer tier of stamens is free, while the inner tieris united. The stamens are dicyclic (occur in two whirls) and are 2 to 7mm in length. Each stamen has four microsporangia arranged in two thecae (Liuet al. 2007).Anthers are yellow in color and 10 in number and are 1 to 2.2 mm in length. Theyare dithecous (two anther lobes), dorsifixed (attached dorsally to the filament), anddehisce by the longitudinal slits.

At the floral base of male flowers, five oval-shaped yellow glands arepresent0.03 mm long and 0.02 mm wide. Pollen are globular, verrucated andbinucleate averaging 57 ?m in diameter (between 52.

5 and 70?m) (Dehgan andWebster 1979; Luo et al 2007). Pollen becomes nonviable after 48 hours and theirabortion may occur in one/two microsporangia per anther (Liu et al. 2007; Luo et al 2007).

Presence of hermaphrodite flowers have also been reported, which aresimilar to female flowers with 8-10 stamens. Pollens of hermaphrodite are weakand less viable with lower germination rates (Abdelgadiret al. 2010). 2.

3.2 Sex determinationThefloral development of Jatropha has been divided into 12 phases starting fromvegetative to reproductive transition resulting the formation of inflorescencemeristem. During the first five phases no sexual differentiation occurs and thefemales are present as bisexual tissue. Further development causes the abortionof male tissue allowing the development of female flower. No traces of femaletissues were found in the male flowers. Thus, there are two modes ofdevelopment in Jatropha: formation of female flowers after the abortion of maletissues and the other is the formation of male flowers with early adolescenceand no occurrence of female primordia (Wu et al 2012).

As male can occupyfemale flowering site, causing the decreased ratio of female to male flowers. Thus,to increase the number of female flowers, the most effective approach is eitherto transform male type inflorescences to middle of intermediate type or byincreasing the male abortion rate, allowing female flowers to develop. Thiswould only be possible by having the knowledge of genetic switches causing thetransition towards female flowers. This is one of the method to increase seedyield, as fruits are formed from the female flowers only.