It hasbeen found that diel CO2 cycles reduce the effect of elevated CO2levels and ocean acidification on Acanthochromispolyacanthus (spinychromis damselfish) and Amphiprionpercula (orange clownfish) behaviour.

 Over the next 100 years ocean surface pH is projected to fall due to increasedcarbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolving in the water, as ocean pH isdirectly affected by atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.1  Ocean acidification and increased CO2concentration can drastically effect marine environments, causing consequencessuch as the slowing of coral growth and calcification,2the calcium carbonate skeleton of coral can dissolve in lower pH water and therecan be detrimental effects on the behaviour of fish, for example decreases inlateralisation.3The studies into the effects of increased ocean acidification and CO2concentration rarely take into account the diel CO2 levels found incoral reef and shore environments. Due to the large concentration of plant lifepresent in and around these ecosystems, the concentration of carbon dioxide inthe water fluctuates based on the intensity of sunlight throughout the day.

The2016 study by Jarrod et al focuses onthe effect diel CO2 levels has and proves that the diel cycle shouldbe taken into account when trying to ascertain the future implications ofincreased atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification. Theresearch done shows that the diel CO2 have a significant effectreducing the negative impacts of the elevated concentrations.   The first experiment was looking at the effect of diel verses stableelevated CO2 treatment using CO2 levels predicted for2100 (480 and 100?atm)4and the diel CO2 levels are based on levels found in some tidallagoons.

5 1 Bopp, L., Resplandy, L., Orr,J., Doney, S.

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, Dunne, J., Gehlen, M., Halloran, P., Heinze, C., Ilyina, T.,Séférian, R., Tjiputra, J.

and Vichi, M; (2013 pp.6225-6245); Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems inthe 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models; Biogeosciences,10(10)2 Joan A. Kleypas, Chris Langdon (2006, p. 73); Coral Reefs and Changing Seawater CarbonateChemistry; online Available at: http://www.isse.ucar.

edu/staff/kleypas/docs/PUBS/kleypas_langdon_AGUmono_CH05_2006.pdf accessed: 2/01/20183 Jutfelt, F., Bresolin de Souza,K., Vuylsteke, A. and Sturve, J; (2013); Behavioural Disturbances in aTemperate Fish Exposed to Sustained High-CO2 Levels; online Available at:http://journals.

plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0065825#s5accessed: 4/01/2018 4 Kroeker, K., Kordas, R.

, Crim,R., Hendriks, I., Ramajo, L., Singh, G., Duarte, C.

and Gattuso, J; (2013, p. 1884–1896); Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms:quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming; Global ChangeBiology 19(6)5 Shaw, E., McNeil, B. andTilbrook, B. (2012); Impacts of oceanacidification in naturally variable coral reef flat ecosystems; Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans,117(C3)