IntroductionOccupation safety and health is a science that is concerned with the preservation of human health and safety b providing safe working environment free from the causes of accidents injuries or occupational diseases. in other words a set of procedures rules and regulation in legislative framework aimed at preserving human being from the risk of injury and preserving the property from the risk of damage and loss a very important science aimed at protecting factory workers and work places from potential accidents that may cause injuries to the worker or death god has also estimated any damage or damage to the property in the establishmentSafety , health and professional legislationThe first legislation on occupational health safety and health was issued in 1946 and then the list of factories in 1949 .the list of work workshops and laboratories was issued in 1950 and thus the law was amended with th development of industry.
The wage committees and conditions of service were promulgated in 1976 of 1981was added with the labor law of 1997The most important sources of legislation1. National laws and legislation2. International and regional conventions and recommendationsVisionStrengthen states leadership in occupational safety and healthThe messageThe development of human resources knowledge and provide innovative research and professional knowledge services in the field of occupational safety and health for development of skills and contribute to the stability and promotion of the work environment and surrounding environmentOccupational health goals3In 1950 the world health organization (WHO) and the international labor office (ILO) indentified occupational health goals as being .1. Work to achieve the highest degree of physical psychological and social fitness for workers in all sectors of work and work to maintain them2.
Ensure that workers are not deprived of health reasons because of their working conditions3. Protecting workers from hazards resulting from factors detrimental to their health4. Applying the worker to work that suits his physical and psychological readiness to achieve harmony between the worker and currency .To achieve this goals it should ensure access to occupational health services regardless of age ,sex, nationality , occupational , type of use size, place, and side of work.Terms of reference of the occupational health department1) develop occupation health and safety strategies and action plans2) collect data and information on occupational health from the occupational health departments in the regions and departments and the work of the strategies. In the light of these results preventive procedures and standards are put in place to reduce the various occupational risk both physical and chemical3) participation with occupational health and safety authorities(authorities ministry of manpower and immigration housing and health insurance)in the development of standards regulations and legislation related to occupational safety and health4) conduct field studies and applied research to study the occupational hazards of the workers exposure and the impact of these pollutants on the external environment and the health of the neighboring population and determine the methods of intervention to solve these problems and methods of prevention and control preventive and curative measures5) develop training programs for occupational health services in the governorates to train physicians working in occupational health units primary4health care physician doctors who will provide occupational health in their units6) develop training programs and health education for the occupational safety and health of the employees of various activities in the country and with the help of departments of the establishment7) follow-up evaluation of the course of the occupational health departments in the health departments affiliated8) permanent communication cooperation with the general department of occupational and industrial health in the ministry and attending training course in this field.Role of occupational health departments in medical department1. implement the recommendations received from department for occupational health services2.
follow up of complaints received from workers exposed to industrial and agricultural occupational hazards such as exposure to poisonous fumes noise chemicals of various types within the government and making recommendations and preventive measure towards protecting workers and the work environment to reduce the dangers and raise the matter to the administration3. follow up complaints from neighboring residents exposed to environmental pollution from industrial facilities and work to take preventive measures and implement the proposed recommendations to reduce pollution and protect the population and raise the matter to the department and the concerned parties4. conducting a professional health assessment of the working environment of industrial establishments within the limits of the administration continuous traffic and follow up and the managements notice of observations to coordinate of the labor force to avoid these risks5. study the risks resulting from the use of the pesticides and chemicals used in agriculture and other works with the development of appropriate methods for the prevention and treatment of occupational and non occupational poisoning by pesticide and the notification of the ministry public administration.
56. Continuous follow up of the data on injuries and their periodic review in cooperation with the information center of the orphansRole of occupational health doctor1. Participation with the occupational health department in the ministry of manpower in the inspection traffic and follow up of facilities2. Permanent communication cooperation with and coordination with general administration of occupational health in the presence of training courses in this field3. Attendance of medical arbitration committees with the health insurance and occupational safety and health doctors in the workforce in the province4. Recording cases of occupational and non occupational chemical poisoning5. Recording cases of occupational insecticide poisoning6.
Traffic follow up and recording cases of occupational diseases in industrial establishment7. Monitor the occupational risk of the unites subsidiaries8. Participate with health insurance doctors in the conduct of primary and periodic medical examination of workers and monitoring the working environment for the implementation of preventive measures9. And biological monitoring of the professional effects on workers to provide therapeutic services10. Follow up to monitor the access of injuries collected by hospitals and primary care units and review them with state information centerOccupational health programOccupational health services are intended for occupational health services which aims at maintaining the health of the workers at all levels and a clean and safe work environment . the occupational health program depend on various factors including1. The size of the institution or project in terms of material resources and labor force2. The quality of exposure in the workplace risk inherent3.
The location of the institution for the health services delivery sites as in the cases of mine or agricultural or industrial projects located in isolated areas.6components of occupational health programa) medical health servicesb) medical statement include:1. preliminary medical examination the signing of a medical examination on intended to selected the appropriate worker for the appropriate work2.
periodic medical examination is the first is the first line of defense to protect the worker against occupational diseases when early detection of the diseases to remove the worker from the place of exposure before the condition worsens and becomes impossible to cure3. special medical records such as medical records such as medical disclosure at the end of service or after returning from leave and early detection of some special hazards and exposures therapeutic services include :treatment of occupational diseases and infectious diseases for worker and their familyfirst aid at work sites .health education providing a safe and healthy working environmentparticipate in the planning and establishment of enterprises by establishing basic rules of the requirements to be metproviding tools and means of work and production safe and sound to ensure the safety of workersprovide transformation storage and handling of flammable or explosive materialsexamine and study accidents to determine their causes and make recommendations and preventive requirements to reduce these factorstraining the workers on the safe use of tools and the use of personal protective toolstraining and health educationand works to raise the awareness of employees about the inherent occupational hazards and how to reduce them and their damage to the health of the worker7and the working environment by all means of the media through seminars posters movies or through training coursesstatistics and registrationpreparation of medical file for each worker including the primary medical examination the results of the examination the periodic medical examination and the subsequent medical records diseases and injuries that have been suffered or may cause preparation of a record of occupational diseases for occupational injuries and periodic reports to the competent authoritiespreparation of accident statistics occupational health program workers specialized in occupational medicine ,doctors and nurses (environmental chemical safety engineers )to provide work environment and biological analysis engineers for the environmental reform of environmental measurementsspecialists in occupational psychology and social workersspecialists in vital statistics and medical recordsdefinition of occupational diseasesis a disease that affects the worker during his employment and lays currently in a profession as a result of exposure to various occupational hazards that have a detrimental effects on health in order to calculate the disease that affects the worker a professional diseases must meet the following condition:the disease included in the occupational diseases tablethe work of worker who is infected with the diseases should be established in one of the industries or business that cause the diseasesthe duration of exposure is sufficient for the occurrence of the diseaseas the occupational disease gradually emerge and their appearance may be delayed after the worker relationship with the currency has ended the project has decided to apply the provisions of the occupational diseases to the diseases contracted by the worker during the gregorian year of the worker legacy provided8that the condition of the occupational diseases are met by the conditions of the worker before the labor legacythe important of identifying occupational diseasesthe establishment of occupational diseases for the worker has three right :1.
the right of worker with a professional illness to receive full medical care at the expense of the employer2. the sick leave that the worker receives during the period of his treatment shall be full wage3. if the occupational diseases results in a partial or total disability the worker shall be entitled to adequate compensation for the different disability either in the form of a material compensation that varies according to the degree of disability resulting as follow :A. if the disability rate is less than 35% the worker shall be granted cashcompensation as a single payment to be calculated as follows :disability × pension due to the deceasedB. if the disability is greater than 35% the worker is entitled to an exceptional pension called a pension which is added to the rank in the cases of his return to work in the event of total disability or death the worker is entitled to a full pension equivalent to 80% of the last salary and increases 5% every five yearssurveillance of the working environment and working practicesevery owner of an industry shall inform his workers of the occupational hazards and means of for protection against such hazards he shall take the necessary precaution to protect workers against industrial accidents and occupational diseasesfindingsbuilding do not fulfill acceptable safety and health standards poor lighting and ventilation there are no emergency exit doors the welfare and sanitary facilities in industriessome manager believe that occupational health and safety is employees responsibility9lack of personal protective equipment and absent of health and safety educationchemical hazards mainly due to chemical detergents are used in cleaning operation and disinfection of process areaCONCLUSIONS- Effective occupational health and safety policies can’t be achieved unless both employers and employees perform their respective responsibilities.
The employer is supposed to file government accident reports,maintain records on health and safety issues, post safetynotices and legislative information and provide education and trainings on health and safety. Occupational health and safety should be a holistic exercise encompassing office design, ergonomics, tiling and flooring, protective tools and equipment, ventilation, lighting and any other procedures that will make the staff feel comfortable to do his/her job.- The employee, on the other hand, is required to comply with all health and safety rules, know that he is ultimately responsible for his/her health and safety The employee is required to wear personal protective equipment and report any contravention of law by management. Also he has the right to refuse unsafe work.- Any practice needs a valid and justifiable legal support for its effective enforcement and implementation, so the government should also institute monitoring teams who will go around periodically checking whether employers align to the regulations as provided in the Labour Act.Measurements of physical, chemical, biological, and ergonomic hazards must be conducted properly.
– Accidents are costly both to the affected worker and organization. Therefore, every effort should be made in order to avoid them at the work place. Health and safety of the staff doing the job is equally important for the jobto be done.The following recommendation should be undertaken into considerations:- Any company should have an Occupational Hygiene Program that clearly defines and stipulates responsibilities of all the workplace parties involved inits development, administration and implementation.- Pre-employment medical examination must be performed as part of Recruitment Procedure.- Standardized reporting procedures must be conducted, to obtain accurate data in industrial hygiene and occupational safety to build-on comprehensive10database, which will help researchers and governmental authorities to improve IH and Occupational safety Practices.- Management should conduct regular monitoring to check whether employees are really put on personal protective equipment given to them before doing their duties, they must also observe, in strict terms, that thesafety measures are put in place in order to avoid any mishaps and accidents.- As with any health and safety problem, the hierarchy of control measures should be followed and, where