Introduction• What is Water Poverty? “The state of not having access to sufficientwater, water of an adequate quality, to meetone’s basic needs” (Oxford Dictionaries)• The major part of the earth is covered by waterthan land.• It contains only 3% of fresh water.• Globally, 1.1 billion people lack access toclean water.• Water poverty in Somalia is due to watershortage, weather and decline of economy.
• 5.5 million people in Somalia are subjected towater poverty and suffer from water-borne diseases (Baringer, 2017)• The main reason for water poverty in Somalia isdrought.• The regions in Somalia mostly effected areSomaliland, Puntland, Barry, Sanaag, Sool and Nugaal regions.• A report published in 2010 says that Somaliatakes the 6th place among the poorest countries in the world(Ultius, 2014).
• According to Reig and colleagues, Somaliland isranked 29th among the world water stress regions• Most Somalians are forced to walk 20km to getwater (Ultius, 2014). • An article by Calkin says that the majority ofthe population in Somalia lack access to water, reducing the average lifeexpectancy of an individual to 51 years .• At present, the access to water in Somalia hasincreased from 15% to 45% when compared to the past 5 years.Causes for WaterPoverty• Geographiclocation-Consists mainly of plateau, plains and highland-Hot conditions prevail year-round along with Periodic monsoonwinds and irregular rainfall• Distance-Absence of close bywater sources• Drought(Abdulrab, 2012)-Not getting enough rainfall• Somaliais near by in an extremely water scarce area-Most of the available rivers are shared by neighbouringcountries• Lowincome (The Water Project, 2017).-Absence of facilities to do agriculture• Cost ofwater is high-200L drum of water costs 200,000 Somali shillings (897,579LKR) (Ultius, 2014) Effect of WaterPoverty• Lack ofaccess to drinking water Lack offacilities to supply water and drying of rivers• Death Death ofhuman and animals• Spreadof diseases (Barringer, 2017) Depression,malnutrition, diarrhea and cholera• Hygieneand sanitation issues (Unicef, 2017) Due to lack ofaccess to clean water• Hunger Absence offarming and death of animals• Childrendo not have energy to do daily activities. Essentialnutrition is absent in the diet• Lack ofeducation (Ultius, 2014).
Children andwomen suffer from the burden of fetching water,therefore they are not sent to school • Loss oftime in fetching water (The water project, 2017). Therefore lesstime invested on trade• Displacementof people to other regions or countries. In 2017, 3770Somali have migrated to Melkabida in EthiopiaCurrent Solutions• Help from the UN and WHO.• Creating a pipeline system across the regions(Ultius, 2014)• Bringclean, sustainable water supply systems at leastwithin the distance of 1km of a village (The Water Project,2017).• Support from clean water initiatives and seekpublic attention. • Relief by few organizations such as UnitedNations Development Programme, Concern Worldwide, The Water Project organization (Ultius,2014)Future Solutions• UNICEF is currently working to providefacilities for water supply for 400,000 people (Barringer, 2017)• Concern Worldwide will provide water for 15 to47 places in Somalia (Concern Worldwide, 2017) • Chlorinated drinking water will be distributedto Somalia people by UNICEF (UNICEF, 2017)• According to UN, if the condition of povertyremains the same, the number of people who are affected will be double by theend of 2018.
• 45,000 people in Baidoa who are internallydisplaced will be given access to clean water (Ahmed, 2017).Conclusion• Atpresent, Somalia has reduced water poverty when compared to the past few years,but still more than half of the population lack access to clean water. • Waterpoverty has reduced the life span of people and animals living in such areas.• Effectsof water poverty are death, lack of access to clean water, spread of diseases, hygiene issues and hunger.• Asa result of water poverty, people in Somalia have had to migrate to othercountries for survival.• Feworganizations are currently working on projects that can help Somalia toovercome water poverty.
• Infuture more countries should come forward to help the people in Somalia andother nations who are subjected to water poverty.