Introduction: Modernizationand dependency are development theories that emerged after the second world war, they were emergedin order to understand the reasons behind the differences between countries, rich and poor,and why some regions are still poor despite the fact that the first world countries areworking on development in these targeted areas. In general, the dependency theory highlights theexploitation of the periphery ( third world countries )by the core countries, due to colonial andpost-colonial endeavors, so it describes development as an external factor. While the modernization theorydescribes that development is internal for the undeveloped countries, as it describes thetransformative processes of societies in the third world countries from underdevelopment to modern societies.ModernizationThoery:Modernization theory has beenemerged after the second world War.
It has been linked to American social scientists in the1950s. This theory highlights thatdevelopment is purely an internal factor based on varioussocial processes, and the developing countries are still at a stage where they have not reached modernizationyet.Stage modernization theory by W.W. Rostow ,one of the most important theorists of modernization, asserts that eachsociety must go through five stages of development to reach the final goal of modernization. Those five stages are: traditional society,precondition for takeoff, the takeoff process, thedrive to maturity and high mass consumption society. Similarly other theories of modernizationbelieve that a certain chief variable like industrialization or rationalization can lead a societyto become modern (Vincent Ferraro).Modernity can be understood as theattempt to provide a foundation for the social, one that is grounded in reason and a project ofglobal emancipation.
One cannot look at the bright side of modernity without looking at itsdark side of domination. The enlightment which discovered the liberties, also invented the disciplines(Foucault 1979). Moreover, Escobar argues that developmentis a discourse and what construct the contemporary third world, silently, withoutnoticing it .by means of this discourse, individual, government, and communities as seen underdeveloped(conditions they see themselves as such) and are treated accordingly (ArturuEscobar).
Modernization is about Africafollowing the developmental footsteps of Europe (largely the former colonizer of Africa). From this point Referring to Palestine, mostof the people who live in ruler areas depend on traditionalagriculture for living , the traditional Palestinian society was first invaded by the British Mandate,which colonized Palestine and started the Jewish Immigration to Palestine throughthis colonization process. The BritishMandate is a western country started the process in modernizingPalestine through new agricultural methods, and during the British MandatePalestinian Women started raising their voice seeking liberty and education. Yet as discussed earlier,modernization is double faced, especially when Britain dominated the country for thirtyyears a lot of traditions and values were changed, after that the Israeli occupation, one must not forget thatIsrael is technologically a developed country which makes Palestine a country that isstill Passing and applying modernization in all ways of life, culturally, socially, mentally, andtechnologically.According to modernity, policiesintended to raise the standard of living of the poor often consist of disseminating knowledge andinformation about more efficient techniques of production. For instance, the agriculturemodernization process involves encouraging farmers to try new crops, new production methods and newmarketing skills (Ellis and Biggs, 2001). This is the case of Palestine nowadays. In criticizing the theory, thewestern civilization is technically and morally superior to traditional societies.
Implies that traditionalvalues in the developing world have little in common compared to those of the West. Yet, many developedcountries have huge inequalities and the greater the level of inequality the greaterthe degree of other problems like, High crime rates, suicide rates, poor health problems such ascancer and drug abuse.Another limitation for this theorythat it failed to see the different interests between the developed and developing countries.Dependency theory :Development is most clearly anchoredin the western economy , with its ensemble of systems of production , power and signification(Polyani 1957,Foucault 1973) According to Andre Gunder Frank(1967), in his analysis of the post colonial state, has argued that classical development theoriessuch as modernity are misleading in that they fail to articulate the true relationship between thedeveloped world and the poor regions of the world.From this point came the dependencytheory. The debates among the liberalreformers (Prebisch), the Marxists (Andre Gunder Frank), and the world systems theorists(Wallerstein) was vigorous and intellectually quite challenging. There is no one unified theory for dependency , but they all agree onmajor characteristics , Nonetheless, there are some core propositionswhich seem to underlie the analyses of most dependency theorists (Vincent Feraro).first, dependency characterizes theinternational system as comprised of two sets of states variously described as dominant/dependent,center/periphery or metropolitan/satelliteSecond,all definitions have incommon the assumption that external forces are of singular importance to the economicactivities within the dependent states.
Third,dependency is a very deep-seated historical process,rooted in the internationalization of capitalism. Dependency is an ongoing process. Dependancy is a historical conditionwhich shapes a certain structure of the world economy such that it favors some countriesto the detriment of others and limits the development possibilities of the subordinateeconomics,a situation in which the economy of a certain group of countries is conditioned by thedevelopment and expansion of another economy, to which their own is subjected(Dos Santos).The global system of capitalism in which corenations such as the USA and UK exploit what the peripheral nations or LDCs. Theperiphery is kept in a state of dependency and under-development because the developedworld requires cheap raw materials and labor. this relationship of exploitation anddependency occurred historically through slavery and colonialism, and continues todaythrough Western dominance of the international trading system, the practices of multinationalcompanies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid(Andre Gunder Frank )As lawrence Harrison quotes ,Underdevelopmentis a state of mind ,like latin America they needed to develop like America ,making thempoor underdeveloped countries without market to sell their products to,and this isthe major proposition of dependency theory .
Social anthropologists consider thedependency theory to be both pessimistic and structural. At macro level, the main premise of thestructural dependency theory is that it would be impossible to understand the processes andproblems of Africa without considering the wider socio-historical context of WesternEuropean expansion (industrial and mercantile capitalism,) and the colonization of these places by theWestern economies (Frank, 1969)After this background referring toPalestine , Palestine have never been an independent country , it have always beencolonized and occupied , it have never been responsible of its own resources and production , theIsraeli occupation settled the land that Palestinians used in agliculture , they dominated thewater resources, the Trade , Isolated Gaza from the west bank , which also make it difficult for thedomestic market to grow .On the other hand Palestine is somuch dependent on the international NGOs funds , which in most cases they have a lot ofdefects beside its benefits , one of the most important ones are not having sustainable development,loading the poor and the country in debt for using loans for the first world countries throughinternational organizations and world bank ,which leaves Palestine economically dependent on the richcountries . however , the dependency theory wascriticized that it focuses too much oneconomic factors and does not take into considerationthe country’s political, social, cultural and environmental factors that might be contributingto underdevelopment, another issue is their suggestion that a developing country can disconnectfrom capitalism and go its own way is impossible in our globalized economy.
Bibliography: 1(. Rostow,W.W); the Stages of Economic Growth: ANon-Communist Manifesto”.
2.( Vincent Ferraro); “Dependency Theory: An Introduction,”in The Development Economics Reader, ed. Giorgio Secondi (London: Routledge,2008), pp. 58-643.(Faucault,Michael ); theuse of pleasure .new York:Viintage books . 4.(Arturo Escobar; Imagining apost development era?Critical thought,development and social movements ,1992,pp 20-56 5.
(Theotonio Dos Santos;”TheStructure of Dependence,” in K.T. Fann and Donald C. Hodges, eds.,Readings in U.
S. Imperialism. Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971, p. 226) 6. (Andre Gunder Frank); ‘TheDevelopment oF Underdevelopment’,1966.