INTRODUCTIONForeign direct investment is one of themeasures of growing economic globalization.
There has been always issue withinvestment for the developing nations such as India. The world has beenglobalizing and all the countries are liberalizing their policies and welcominginvestment from countries which are large enough in capital resources. Thedeveloped economies are focusing on new markets where there is existence ofabundant labors, scope for products, and high profits are achieved. Hence,Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has become a battle ground in the emergingmarkets. The main idea behind allowing FDI is to supplement and complement domesticinvestment is to achieve a higher level of economic development and providingopportunities for technological upgradation also access to global managerialskills and practices.South Asian countries such as China haveincorporated open door policies during 1980’s but India liberalized itspolicies in 1991.India followed conservative policies before pre-liberalizationto protect the indigenous industrialist and investors, therefore could notachieve economic growth.
In 1991, the then congress government had implementedliberalization policies to restructure the Indian economy.NEED FOR FDI IN INDIA Capital has been one of the scare resources asIndia is a developing nation that are usually required for economicdevelopment. As the capital is limited, there are many issues such as health,poverty, employment, education, research and development, technology obsolesce,global competition. The flow of FDI in India from across the world will help inacquiring the funds at cheaper cost, better technology, employment generation,and upgraded technology transfer, scope for more trade, linkages and spilloversto domestic firms. The following arguments are advanced in favor of foreigncapital. Ø Sustaining A GreaterLevel Of Investment: All the under developed and the growing nations need toindustrialize and grow, consequently it ends up plainly important to build thelevel to venture considerably. On account of neediness and low GDP the sparingare low.
In this manner, there is a need to fill the hole amongst funds andsalary through outside direct speculations. Ø Technological Gap: InIndian situation we require specialized help from remote hotspot forarrangement if master administrations, preparing of Indian work force andinstructive, research and preparing organizations in the business. It justcomes through private outside speculation or remote joint efforts. Ø Exploitation Of NaturalResources: We have plenty natural resources, for example, coal, iron and steelyet we require more effort to separate the resources. Ø Understanding The InitialRisk: As capital is comparatively less in developing nations, there is abnormalstate of hazard in putting resources into new pursuits or undertakings forindustrialization. Hence, outside capital aides in these speculations whichrequire high hazard. Ø Development Of Basic EconomicInfrastructure: The outside money related foundations and administration ofcutting edge nations have sufficiently made capital accessible to the immaturenations. FDI will help in building up the foundation by setting up company’sdiverse parts of the nation.
There are exceptional financial zones whichhave been created by government for extemporizing the mechanical development. Ø Improvement In TheBalance Of Payments Position: The inflow FDI will help in enhancing the adjustof installment. Firms which feel that the merchandise created in India willhave a minimal effort, will deliver the products and fare the same to othernation.This aides in expanding the fares. Ø Foreign Firm’s Helps InIncreasing The Competition: Foreign firms have dependably concocted betterinnovation, process, and advancements contrasting and the household firms. Theybuild up a fruition in which the local firms will perform better it makes duein the market.
(AZHAR* & K.N.MARIMUTHU**, 2015)India announces new Foreign DirectInvestment Policy, 2017 – 2018The ability to entrance large scaleForeign Direct Investment (FDI) into India has been a key driver forpolicy making by the Government. Prime Minister Modi is along the right track,with India receiving FDI inflows worth USD 60.1 billion in 2016-17, which isall-time greater. Therefore, the FDI policy of India is always closely watchedand carefully amended.
The Department of Industrial Policyand Promotion (DIPP) had issued the updated and revised Foreign DirectInvestment Policy, 2017 – 2018 (FDI Policy 2017) on August 28,2017. TheFDI Policy 2017 incorporated various notifications issued by the Government ofIndia over the past year.The key amendments brought by the FDIPolicy 2017 to the erstwhile FDI Policy of 2016 and their potential impact onFDI in India:NewStreamlined Procedure for Government ApprovalØ Abolition of the Foreign Investment Promotion Board(FIPB): The Department of Economic Affairs has issued the most surprisingalteration to the FDI administration affirming the destruction of the FIPB (thepast government body approved to endorse recommendations for FDI requiringgovernment endorsement); and the presenting the ‘Foreign InvestmentFacilitation Portal’ (FIFP), a managerial body to smoothen the way of FDIcandidates on June 5th 2017. Ø Introduction of Competent Authorities: The FDIPolicy 2017 records and characterizes area particular authoritativeservice/division as ‘Competent Authorities’ enabled to allow governmentendorsement for FDI. Competent Authorities recorded in the FDI Policy 2017incorporate the DIPP in regard of utilizations for FDI in the Single Brand,Multi Brand and Food Product retail exchanging and the Department of EconomicAffairs of India for FDI in the money related administrations area. Ø Introduction of ‘Standard Operating Procedure'(SOP) to process FDI proposition: The DIPP had likewise issued the SOP whichgives the nitty gritty method and course of events for applicationsadditionally the rundown of ‘skillful experts’ for handling governmentendorsements for FDI in India.Revisionsto existing provisions of the FDI Policy of 2016The FDI Policy 2017 also incorporatesall Press Notes issued by the DIPP during the course of the year.
Set out beloware the sector-specific significant amendments brought about in the last year:Ø Manufacturing: To additionally change the assembling area (which permitted 100% FDIunder the programmed highway), 100% FDI under government endorsement course wastook into consideration retail exchanging, including through web based businesscreated in India, in regard of nourishment items made. Ø Civil Aviation: In existing tasks the edge for FDI under the programmed course wasraised from 74% to 100%. Ø Single Brand Retailing: Sourcing standards pertinent for FDI were unwinded and won’t bematerial up to 3 (three) years from initiation of the business which impliesthe opening of the primary store for elements undertaking single brand retailexchanging of items having ‘condition of-workmanship’ and ‘forefront’innovation and where nearby sourcing is unthinkable. Ø Other Financial Services: The beforehand relevant capitalisation standards for non-keeping moneybudgetary administrations organizations were broken down, with materialness ofsectoral laws and all other monetary part exercises by substances effectivelymanaged by money related area controllers fall under the 100% programmed courseof speculation. (Savani, 2017)Table-1FDIinflows to Major Sectors from Top Five Host Countries (in per cent) from2011-12 to 2015-16(November) (Rupees in Crores) Sectors Singapore Mauritius Netherlands US Japan Service Sector 18.
6 18.9 15.4 19 20 Computer software and hardware 13.6 6.2 3.2 9.8 1 Trading 11.8 2.
4 10 3.2 4.6 Telecommunications 8.
6 11.5 0.3 2 0.1 Drugs & pharmaceuticals 6.6 1.0 0.
6 2 3 Power 5.0 6.1 2.
7 4 0.3 Construction(infrastructure) 3.5 3.9 0.2 3.
5 0.5 Hotel tourism 2.3 10.6 0.6 0.8 0.
1 Automobiles 1.9 1.5 8.7 17.8 21 Chemicals NA 1.
6 8.9 1.8 2.7 Petroleum and natural gas 0.7 1.1 8.4 0.1 1.
2 Mauritius largest source of FDI in India, says RBI According to a census by the ReserveBank, Mauritius was the largest source of foreign investment in India (21.8percent share at market value), followed by the US and the UK. Singapore (19.7percent) and Japan were the next two sources of foreign direct investment, saidthe Census on Foreign Liabilities and Assets of Indian Direct InvestmentCompanies 2016-17, released by RBI.Out of the 18,667 companies that participatedin the census, 17,020 had FDI/overseas direct investment in their balancesheets in March 2017, 96% of the responding companies were unlisted in March2017 and many of them had received only inward FDI. Further, over 80 per cent of the15,169 companies that reported inward FDI were subsidiaries of foreigncompanies (single foreign investor holding over 50 per cent of the totalequity).From 3.6 a year ago, the ratio of market values ofinward to outward direct investment, increased to 4.
3 in March 2017; equityparticipation accounted for 94 per cent and 79 per cent shares in inward andoutward FDI, respectively.(https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/mauritius-largest-source-of-fdi-in-india-says-rbi/articleshow/62571261.cms, 2018) Types of RoutesThereare two routes where India gets FDI:Automaticroute: Without the prior approval by Government or ReserveBank of India FDI is allowed by this routeGovernment route: By this route prior approval by governmentis needed. The application needs to be made through Foreign InvestmentFacilitation Portal, which will smoothen single window clearance of FDIapplication under Approval Route. The application will be carried forward tothe respective ministries which will act on the application as per the standardoperating procedure.
Few Sectors in which FDI is allowed in IndiaAGRICULTUREAGRICULTURE AND ANIMALHUSBANDRY Sector/Activity % of Equity/FDI cap Entry Route a) Floriculture, Horticulture, and cultivation of Vegetables Mushrooms under controlled conditions; b) Development and Production of seeds and planting material; c) Animal Husbandry (including breeding of dogs), Pisiculture, Aquaculture, Apiculture d) Services related to agro and allied sectors 100% Automatic Theterm “under controlled conditions” means the following:Cultivationunder controlled conditions for the classification of horticulture,floriculture, mushrooms is the practice of cultivation wherein temperature, airhumidity, rainfall are controlled artificially. PLANTATION SECTOR Sector/Activity %of Equity/FDI Cap Entry Route a) Tea sector including tea plantations b) Coffee plantations c) Rubber plantations d) Cardamom plantations e) Olive oil tree plantations f) Palm oil tree plantations 100% Automatic MANUFACTURINGTheFDI in manufacturing sector is automatic route. Therefore, a manufacturer ispermitted to sell the products which are manufactured in India throughwholesale and/or retail, including through e-commerce, without Governmentapproval. There is change in FDI policy provisions on trading sector, 100% FDIunder Government approval route is allowed for retail trading, includinge-commerce, and also food products manufactured and/or produced in India.DEFENCE Sector/Activity % of Equity/FDI Cap Entry Route Defence Industry subject to Industrial license under the Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951; and Manufacturing of small arms and ammunition under the Arms Act, 1959 100% Automatic up to 49% Government route beyond 49% wherever it is likely to result in access to modern technology or for other reasons to be recorded (Chaturved, 2017)CONCLUSIONEven during therecession period India has managed to show a positive GDP growth and has beenone of the developing countries. Compare to the average growth rate of worldGDP India has performed very well.
India acquires all the variables such asfine infrastructure, potential markets, abundant labour, availability ofnatural resources, and at last the economic and trades policies which favoursFDI. India is rated as the second-most favoured destination for FDI in theworld after China, As India has a large proportion of young population it isexpected that in future India would beat China with one of the fastest growingeconomies. The government should formulate more policies which can attract moreforeign investment in manufacturing sector rather than service sector. References (2018, Jan 19).
Retrieved from https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/mauritius-largest-source-of-fdi-in-india-says-rbi/articleshow/62571261.cms.
AZHAR*, S., & K.N.MARIMUTHU**. (2015).
AN OVERVIEW OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN INDIA . 14. Chaturved, A. (2017). Consolidated FDI Policy Circular of 2017. New Delhi. Savani, K.
(2017, september 6). Retrieved from https://corporate.cyrilamarchandblogs.com/2017/09/india-announces-new-foreign-direct-investment-policy-2017-2018/.